Volume 4.45 | Nov 19

Pancreatic Cell News 4.45 November 19, 2013
Pancreatic Cell News
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Transient Cytokine Treatment Induces Acinar Cell Reprogramming and Regenerates Functional Beta Cell Mass in Diabetic Mice
Researchers showed that transient administration of epidermal growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor to adult mice with chronic hyperglycemia efficiently stimulates the conversion of terminally differentiated acinar cells to beta-like cells. [Nat Biotechnol] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Restoration of the Unfolded Protein Response in Pancreatic β Cells Protects Mice Against Type 1 Diabetes
Researchers identified defects in the expression of unfolded protein response mediators ATF6 and XBP1 in β cells from two different type 1 diabetes (T1D) mouse models and then demonstrated similar defects in pancreatic β cells from T1D patients. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Beta Cell Dysfunction Due to Increased ER Stress in a Stem Cell Model of Wolfram Syndrome
To investigate the cause of beta cell failure, researchers used induced pluripotent stem cells to create insulin-producing cells from individuals with Wolfram syndrome. WFS1-deficient beta cells showed increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress molecules, and decreased insulin content. [Diabetes]
Abstract | Press Release

Resident Macrophages Mediate Islet Amyloid Polypeptide-Induced Islet IL-1β Production and Beta Cell Dysfunction
In cultured islets, macrophages were required for islet amyloid polypeptide-induced mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. [Diabetes] Abstract

Arx Polyalanine Expansion in Mice Leads to Reduced Pancreatic α-Cell Specification and Increased α-Cell Death
Scientists report that mice with an expansion mutation in the first polyalanine tract of Arx exhibit impaired α-cell specification and maintenance, with gradual α-cell loss due to apoptosis. [PLoS One] Full Article

Effect of the Cigarette Smoke Component, 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone (NNK), on Physiological and Molecular Parameters of Thiamin Uptake by Pancreatic Acinar Cells
Scientists examined the effect of chronic exposure of pancreatic acinar cells in vitro and in vivo to the cigarette smoke component NNK on physiological and molecular parameters of the thiamin uptake process. They showed that chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to NNK leads to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. [PLoS One] Full Article

Expression, Phosphorylation and Function of the Rab-GTPase Activating Protein TBC1D1 in Pancreatic Beta-Cells
Using human and rat beta-cells, researchers showed for the first time that TBC1D1 is expressed and phosphorylated in response to glucose in these cells. Knockdown of TBC1D1 in beta-cells resulted in increased basal and glucose-stimulated insulin release, decreased proliferation but no change in apoptosis. [FEBS Lett] Abstract


Preclinical Validation of AXL Receptor as a Target for Antibody-Based Pancreatic Cancer Immunotherapy
Researchers investigated whether inhibition of AXL activity by specific monoclonal antibodies is efficient in limiting proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. [Oncogene] Abstract

Synergistic Activities of MET/RON Inhibitor BMS-777607 and mTOR Inhibitor AZD8055 to Polyploid Cells Derived from Pancreatic Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells
Investigators report the synergistic activity of BMS-777607 in combination with mTOR inhibitor AZD8055 in killing chemoresistant pancreatic cancer and cancer stem cells. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

mTOR Plays Critical Roles in Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells through Specific and Stemness-Related Functions
Scientists investigated the significance of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in maintaining the properties of pancreatic cancer stem cells. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, reduced the viability of CD133+ pancreatic cancer cells and sphere formation which is an index of self-renewal of stem-like cells, indicating that the mTOR pathway functions to maintain cancer stem-like cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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Minireview: Intraislet Regulation of Insulin Secretion in Humans
The authors discuss the structural and functional underpinnings that influence insulin secretion from human islets, and the possibility that dyscoordination between individual β-cells may play an important role in some forms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Mol Endocrinol] Abstract

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Researcher Studying Biological Factors of Blood Glucose Variability Wins 2013 IDF Europe Prize in Diabetes for Young Researcher
Doctor Krisztina Lukacs of the Semmelweis University, Budapest was presented with the 2013 IDF Europe Prize in Diabetes for Young Researcher at an award ceremony at the European Parliament in Brussels. The prize was awarded in recognition of her outstanding scientific work in the field of genetics and diabetes. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

Lilly Announces Significant Global Insulin Manufacturing Capacity Investments in Response to Growing Diabetes Epidemic
Eli Lilly and Company announced it will invest more than $700 million to enhance its global insulin manufacturing capacity in Puerto Rico, France and China, as well as in Indianapolis, home to Lilly’s global headquarters. The news raises Lilly’s manufacturing commitment in the past year to more than $1 billion in planned investments in response to the growing diabetes epidemic and increasing demand for insulin around the world. [Eli Lilly and Company] Press Release

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For Type 1 Diabetes, Islet Transplantation Gains Momentum
For the worst cases of type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation already has freed hundreds of people from complete dependence on insulin and from life-threatening consequences of the disease. However, the procedure still is regarded as experimental by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [University of California, San Francisco] Editorial

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Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposia: Stem Cells and Cancer
February 2-7, 2014
Banff, Canada

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic Cancer Research (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)

Postdoctoral Fellow Positions – Beta Cell Maintenance in Health and Diabetes (Tel Aviv University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Novel Genes in Pancreatic Beta Cell Function (University of California – San Francisco)

Postdoctoral Associate Position – Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance and Beta-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes (Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Metabolism, Diabetes and Fatty Liver Disease (Boston University)

Postdoctoral Associate – Human and Mouse Stem Cell Biology, Pancreatic and Liver Specification and In Vitro Disease Modeling (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Progression (University of South Alabama)

Faculty Position – Department of Cellular & Structural Biology (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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