Volume 7.07 | Feb 23

Pancreatic Cell News 7.07 February 23, 2016
Pancreatic Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Pathogenic CD4 T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes Recognize Epitopes Formed by Peptide Fusion
Researchers found that diabetes-inducing CD4 T cell clones isolated from nonobese diabetic mice recognize epitopes formed by covalent cross-linking of proinsulin peptides to other peptides present in β cell secretory granules. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
DIABETES & PANCREATITIS

Reprogrammed Stomach Tissue as a Renewable Source of Functional β Cells for Blood Glucose Regulation
Scientists showed that cells of the antral stomach have a previously unappreciated propensity for conversion into functional insulin-secreting cells. Native antral endocrine cells share a surprising degree of transcriptional similarity with pancreatic β cells, and expression of β cell reprogramming factors in vivo converted antral cells efficiently into insulin+ cells with close molecular and functional similarity to β cells. [Cell Stem Cell] Full Article | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

MafA-Controlled Nicotinic Receptor Expression Is Essential for Insulin Secretion and Is Impaired in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Using a glucose-intolerant, MafA-deficient mouse model, researchers demonstrated that MAFA controls autonomic nervous system-mediated insulin secretion by activating the transcription of nicotinic (ChrnB2 and ChrnB4) and adrenergic (Adra2A) receptor genes, which are integral parts of acetylcholine- and monoamine-signaling pathways. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Diabetes Caused by Elastase-Cre-Mediated Pdx1 Inactivation in Mice
Researchers used Elastase-Cre-mediated recombination to inactivate Pdx1 in the pancreatic exocrine lineage during embryonic stages. Along with exocrine defects, including impaired acinar cell maturation, the mutant mice exhibited substantial endocrine defects, including disturbed tip/trunk patterning of the developing ductal structure, a reduced number of Ngn3-expressing endocrine precursors, and ultimately fewer β cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article | Press Release

Angiopoietin 2 Induces Astrocyte Apoptosis via αvβ5-Integrin Signaling in Diabetic Retinopathy
Investigators demonstrated that vascular leakage occurred with astrocyte loss in early diabetic mice retina as angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) increased. The astrocyte loss and vascular leakage were inhibited by intravitreal injection of Ang2-neutralizing antibody. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

PANCREATIC CANCER

TGF-β Tumor Suppression through a Lethal EMT
Researchers showed that TGF-β induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), generally considered a pro-tumorigenic event. However, in TGF-β-sensitive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells, EMT become lethal by converting TGF-β-induced Sox4 from an enforcer of tumorigenesis into a promoter of apoptosis. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

PlGF/VEGFR-1 Signaling Promotes Macrophage Polarization and Accelerated Tumor Progression in Obesity
The authors hypothesized that increased activity of placental growth factor (PlGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) signaling mediates obesity-induced tumor progression by augmenting tumor angiogenesis and tumor-associated macrophage recruitment/activity. [Clin Cancer Res] Full Article | Press Release

miR-137 Modulates a Tumor Suppressor Network-Inducing Senescence in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Scientists showed that miR-137 targets KDM4A mRNA during Ras-induced senescence and activates both p53 and retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathways. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 – Pancreas Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines with Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Somatostatin Receptors
Researchers aimed to describe the MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell line phenotype and genotype characteristics that may play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer therapeutic assays, namely neuroendocrine chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Diabetic Emergencies – Ketoacidosis, Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State and Hypoglycaemia
The reviewers describe the clinical presentation, precipitating causes, diagnosis and acute management of diabetic emergencies, including a discussion of practical strategies for their prevention. [Nat Rev Endocrinol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
FDA Accepts Sanofi New Drug Application for Once-Daily Fixed-Ratio Combination of Insulin Glargine and Lixisenatide
Sanofi announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted the New Drug Application for its investigational fixed-ratio combination of basal insulin glargine 100 Units/mL and GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes. [Sanofi] Press Release

GlucoTrack® Maker Receives New EU Certification
Integrity Applications, Inc., maker of GlucoTrack®, a non-invasive device for measuring glucose levels of people with Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetics, announced that it has received an extension of its ISO 13485:2003 certificate and Annex II certification from the European Union. [Integrity Applications, Inc.] Press Release

Dr. Rohit N. Kulkarni, Senior Investigator at Joslin Diabetes Center, Named Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School
Rohit N. Kulkarni, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator in the Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology at Joslin Diabetes Center, has been named Professor of Medicine by Harvard Medical School. [Joslin Diabetes Center] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW AACR Annual Meeting 2016
April 16-20, 2016
New Orleans, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Associate Professor – Pancreatic Cancer, Stem Cell Biology and Bioengineering (University of Copenhagen)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis, Diabetes and Obesity (Washington University School of Medicine)

Assistant Professor of Surgery – Molecular Biology and Pancreatic Development (University of Pittsburgh)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Mechanisms of Diabetes (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Atherosclerosis and Diabetes (Virginia Commonwealth University)

Faculty Position – Metabolic Disease Research (Lewis Katz School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Diabetes (Danish Diabetes Academy)

Post-Doc Fellowship – Glucose Metabolism (Joslin Diabetes Center)

Post-Doc Researcher – Drug Discovery in Cancer/Diabetes (D. E. Shaw Research)

Post-Doc Fellowship – Diabetes Research (Sanford Research/University of South Dakota)

Faculty Position – Biomedical Metabolomics & Metabolism (University of Ottawa)

Post-Doc Researcher – Type 1 Diabetes (University of Turku)

MD/PhD Researcher – Biomedical Sciences (Hannover Medical School)


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