Volume 6.38 | Sep 29

Pancreatic Cell News 6.38 September 29, 2015
Pancreatic Cell News
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TOP STORY
Researchers Identify New Pathway to Regenerate Insulin-Producing Cells
In an innovative study in mice, researchers discovered how the pancreas knows that more insulin-producing beta cells are needed. When there’s an increase in insulin demand, there’s a corresponding increase in insulin production in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the beta cell, which causes some stress to the ER system. [Press release from University of Massachusetts Medical School discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation] Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
DIABETES & PANCREATITIS

Deletion of ARNT/HIF1β in Pancreatic Beta Cells Does Not Impair Glucose Homeostasis in Mice, but Is Associated with Defective Glucose Sensing Ex Vivo
The in vivo and in vitro consequences of the loss of ARNT/HIF1β were investigated in beta cell specific Arnt/Hif1β knockout mice. [Diabetologia] Abstract

DNAJB3/HSP-40 Cochaperone Improves Insulin Signaling and Enhances Glucose Uptake In Vitro through JNK Repression
Overexpression of DNAJB3 in HEK293 and 3T3-L1 cells reduced JNK, IRS-1 Ser-307 phosphorylation and enhanced Tyr-612 phosphorylation suggesting an improvement in IRS-1 signaling. Furthermore, DNAJB3 mediated the PI3K/AKT pathway activation through increasing AKT and AS160 phosphorylation. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Cholecystokinin Expression in the β-Cell Leads to Increased β-Cell Area in Aged Mice and Protects from Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Apoptosis
Researchers examined the ability of transgenic mice that expresses CCK in the β-cell in the lean state (MIP-CCK mice) to maintain β-cell mass when subjected to apoptotic stress, with advanced age and after streptozotocin treatment. Aged MIP-CCK mice have increased β-cell area. MIP-CCK mice are resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and exhibit reduced β-cell apoptosis. [Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab] Abstract

Increased Slc12a1 Expression in β-Cells and Improved Glucose Disposal in Slc12a2 Heterozygous Mice
The products of the Slc12a1 and Slc12a2 genes, commonly known as Na+-dependent K+2Cl cotransporters NKCC2 and NKCC1, respectively, are the targets for the diuretic bumetanide. MIN6 cells chronically pre-treated with bumetanide exhibited increased initial rates of Cl uptake while preserving glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. [J Endocrinol] Abstract

Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia
Researchers provided novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. [PLoS One] Full Article

Protective Effects of Epoxypukalide on Pancreatic Beta-Cells and Glucose Metabolism in STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice
Scientists recently demonstrated that epoxypukalide (Epoxy) is a natural compound with beneficial effects on primary cultures of rat islets. Here, they test the hypothesis that Epoxy protects β-cells and improves glucose metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. [Islets] Abstract

PANCREATIC CANCER

Metformin Increases Sensitivity of Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Gemcitabine by Reducing CD133+ Cell Populations and Suppressing ERK/P70S6K Signaling
Researchers investigated the role of metformin in chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. Metformin increases sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. [Sci Rep] Full Article

TRIM37 Promoted the Growth and Migration of the Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Scientists found that the expression level of tripartite motif containing 37 (TRIM37) was significantly higher in pancreatic cancerous tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The molecular mechanism study suggested that TRIM37 interacted with beta-catenin and activated the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/TCF complex as well as the expression of its downstream target genes. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

The Flavonoid P-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Exhibits Anticancer Effects in Human Pancreatic Cancer MIA PaCa-2 Cells In Vitro: Comparison with Gemcitabine
The authors determined whether the flavonoid p-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA), which is a botanical factor, possesses anticancer effects on cloned human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa‑2 cells that possess resistance to radiation therapy in vitro. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

Garcinol Downregulates Notch1 Signaling via Modulating miR-200c and Suppresses Oncogenic Properties of PANC-1 Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Researchers identified and isolated pancreatic cancer stem-like cells using side-population (SP) method from human pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1. PANC-1 SP cells exhibited cancer stem-like cell properties including enhanced self-renewal ability, increased metastatic potential and resistance towards gemcitabine treatment. [Biotechnol Appl Biochem] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Unraveling the Complexity of Autophagy: Potential Therapeutic Applications in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
The role of autophagy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has been investigated by different research groups and the results are quite divergent; some research lines point at autophagy as a tumor promoting mechanism, whereas other studies assign oncosuppressive functions to it. [Semin Cancer Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Novo Nordisk Receives US FDA Approval for Tresiba® and Ryzodeg® 70/30
Novo Nordisk announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Tresiba® and Ryzodeg® 70/30 for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in adults after review of the class II resubmissions of the new drug applications. [Novo Nordisk] Press Release

OncoGenex Announces Phase II Rainier Results in Previously Untreated Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer
OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced initial results from the Phase II Rainier study evaluating apatorsen in combination with ABRAXANE® and gemcitabine compared to ABRAXANE and gemcitabine alone in patients with untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer. [OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

MARIZEV® (Omarigliptin), Merck’s Once-Weekly DPP-4 Inhibitor for Type 2 Diabetes, Approved in Japan
Merck announced that the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency has approved MARIZEV® (omarigliptin) 25 mg and 12.5 mg tablets, an oral, once-weekly DPP-4 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes. Japan is the first country to have approved omarigliptin. [Merck] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
Canadian Election Spotlights Scientists’ Frustrations
Canadians will head to the polls on October 19th, in a federal election that many scientists hope will mark a turning point after years of declining research budgets and allegations of government censorship. Although science has not emerged as a top issue during the campaign, researchers are fighting to make their concerns heard. [Nature News] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2nd Matrix Biology Ireland (MBI) 2015
December 2-4, 2015
Dublin, Ireland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Clinical Research Fellow – Pancreatic Cancer (Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute)

Marketing Manager – Oncology (Celgene Corporation)

Research Technician – Diabetes & Metabolism (University of Bristol)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Action in Obesity and Diabetes Pathogenesis (National Institutes of Health Diabetes)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Diabetes and Metabolism (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic Cancer (University of California, San Diego)

Postdoctoral Position – Diabetes (Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Diabetes Research (Inserm)

Postdoctoral Position – Diabetes Research (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Translational Research Program (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Pancreatic Cancer (Columbia University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)


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