Volume 6.27 | Jul 14

Pancreatic Cell News 6.27 July 14, 2015
Pancreatic Cell News
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Transcriptional Control of Autophagy-Lysosome Function Drives Pancreatic Cancer Metabolism
Scientists showed that autophagy induction in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma occurs as part of a broader transcriptional program that coordinates activation of lysosome biogenesis and function, and nutrient scavenging, mediated by the MiT/TFE family of transcription factors. [Nature] Abstract
Differentiation Doesn't Have to be Difficult - Get Easy, Standardized hPSC Differentiation
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Glucagon Couples Hepatic Amino Acid Catabolism to mTOR-Dependent Regulation of α-Cell Mass
Scientists found that glucagon receptor inhibition reduced hepatic amino acid catabolism, increased serum amino acids, and induced α-cell proliferation in an mTOR-dependent manner. In addition, mTOR inhibition blocked amino-acid-dependent α-cell replication ex vivo and enabled conversion of α-cells into β-like cells in vivo. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Augmented Stat5 Signaling Bypasses Multiple Impediments to Lactogen-Mediated Proliferation in Human Beta Cells
The authors explored the prolactin (PRL)-prolactin receptor (hPRLR)-JAK2-STAT5-cyclin-cdk signaling cascade in human beta cells. Adult human beta cells express little or no PRLR. Restoration of the hPRLR in human beta cells rescued JAK2-STAT5 signaling in response to PRL. [Diabetes] Abstract

The Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A1 Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from ER-Stress-Mediated Apoptosis
Investigators analyzed the role of NR4A1 in ER-stress-mediated β-cell apoptosis and to characterize the related mechanisms. They confirmed that upon treatment with the ER stress inducers thapsigargin or palmitic acid, the mRNA and protein levels of NR4A1 rapidly increased in both MIN6 cells and mouse islets. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

REST Represses a Subset of the Pancreatic Endocrine Differentiation Program
Scientists investigated the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. They showed that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. [Dev Biol] Abstract

Phloroglucinol Protects INS-1 Pancreatic β-Cells against Glucotoxicity-Induced Apoptosis
Researchers investigated whether phloroglucinol protected pancreatic β-cells against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis using a rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1). High glucose treatment induced INS-1 cell death; however, the level of glucose-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced in cells treated with 100 μM phloroglucinol. [Phytother Res] Abstract


The Acinar Differentiation Determinant PTF1A Inhibits Initiation of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Scientists demonstrated that PTF1A expression is lost in both mouse and human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, and that this downregulation is functionally imperative in mice for acinar reprogramming by oncogenic KRAS. [eLife] Abstract | Full Article

Interaction between MicroRNA-181a and TNFAIP1 Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Proliferation and Migration
MicroRNA (miR)-181a inhibitor lentivirus was used to down-regulate miR-181a in Capan-1 and AsPC-1 cells. The effects of miR-181a down-regulation on pancreatic cancer were evaluated by in vitro proliferation assay and migration assay. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

miR-216a May Inhibit Pancreatic Tumor Growth by Targeting JAK2
The authors investigated miR-216a expression in pancreatic cancer and determined its effects on proliferation. miR-216a was found downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues as compared to benign pancreatic lesions. [FEBS Lett] Abstract

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Development of an Encapsulated Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Diabetes
Recent advancements in the field of stem cell-derived islet cell products and immunoisolation strategies hold great promise for type 1 diabetes. However, a combination product including both cells and an immunoisolation strategy still needs to be optimized and tested for safety and efficacy. [Expert Opin Biol Ther] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
Novo Nordisk Successfully Completes First Phase IIIa Trial with Semaglutide in People with Type 2 Diabetes
Novo Nordisk announced the headline results from SUSTAIN1, the first Phase IIIa trial for semaglutide, a new GLP-1 analogue administered once-weekly. The trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg semaglutide as monotherapy during 30 weeks of treatment compared with placebo in 388 people with type 2 diabetes previously on diet and exercise. [Novo Nordisk A/S] Press Release

American Diabetes Association Research Foundation Collaborates with Foundation for Diabetes Research to Fund Project Aimed at Improving Islet Transplantation
The American Diabetes Association Research Foundation announced its collaboration with the Foundation for Diabetes Research (FDR). The FDR will provide support for an innovative research grant with a commitment of $250,000. [The American Diabetes Association Research Foundation (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

apceth and University of Cologne to Join Forces on Combination Cellular Immunotherapies for Cancer
apceth announced a broad partnership with the Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, to combine technologies and expertise, on the development of immunotherapies for solid tumors and hematological malignancies. [apceth®] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cancer and Metabolism 2015
September 28-30, 2015
Cambridge, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Disease Gene Regulation (Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Professorship – Molecular Biology of Diabetes Pathogenesis (University of Southern Denmark)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Pancreatic Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Relating to Diabetes (Mount Sinai School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Immunopathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (Tongji Medical College)

PhD Student – Diabetes (Danish Diabetes Academy)

Research Associate – Cancer Therapeutics (University of Cambridge)

Postdoctoral Position – Adipocyte Development (German Institute of Human Nutrition)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Type 1 Diabetes and Other Autoimmune Diseases (Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason)

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