Volume 6.17 | May 5

Pancreatic Cell News 6.17 May 5, 2015
Pancreatic Cell News
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TOP STORY
Altered Phenotype of β-Cells and Other Pancreatic Cell Lineages in Patients with Diffuse Congenital Hyperinsulinism in Infancy Due to Mutations in the ATP-Sensitive K-Channel
Diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism in infancy arises from mutations inactivating the KATP channel, however, the phenotype is difficult to explain from electrophysiology alone. Increased proliferation in diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism in infancy was most elevated in duct and acinar lineages. [Diabetes] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
DIABETES & PANCREATITIS

Improving Pancreatic Islet In Vitro Functionality and Transplantation Efficiency by Using Heparin Mimetic Peptide Nanofiber Gels
It is important to provide a proper mechanically and biologically supportive environment for enhancing both in vitro islet culture and transplantation efficiency. Researchers demonstrated that heparin mimetic peptide amphiphile nanofibrous network is a promising platform for these purposes. [Acta Biomater] Abstract

Chronic Exposure to Excess Nutrients Left-Shifts the Concentration Dependence of Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells
Scientists tested the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia can result from an intrinsic response of the β-cell to chronic exposure to excess nutrients, involving a shift in the concentration dependency of glucose- stimulated insulin secretion. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

PRMT4 Is Involved in Insulin Secretion via Methylation of Histone H3 in Pancreatic β-Cells
Scientists showed that protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT)4 expression was increased in INS-1 and HIT-T15 pancreatic β-cells under high glucose conditions. [J Mol Endocrinol] Abstract

Pancreatic Endocrine Effects of Dopamine Receptors in Human Islet Cells
Scientists determined the localization and expression of 5 dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) in normal human pancreas tissue. They found that the D1 receptor is present in β cells; the D2 receptor is expressed by α, δ, and pancreatic polypeptide cells; the D4 receptor is expressed by β and polypeptide cells; whereas the D5 receptor is expressed only by δ cells. [Pancreas] Abstract

Osteocalcin Protects Pancreatic Beta Cell Function and Survival under High Glucose Conditions
The authors hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis they cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 hours. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Transduction of PEP-1-Heme Oxygenase-1 into Insulin-Producing INS-1 Cells Protects them against Cytokine-Induced Cell Death
Researchers transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 hours. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

PANCREATIC CANCER

Selective Nuclear Export Inhibitor KPT-330 Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Gemcitabine in Human Pancreatic Cancer
Researchers evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of gemcitabine combined with the selective nuclear export inhibitor KPT-330 on pancreatic cancer growth. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

Pachymic Acid Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting ER Stress
The authors investigated the anticancer effect of pachymic acid (PA) on human chemotherapy resistant pancreatic cancer. PA triggered apoptosis in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2. [PLoS One] Full Article

Inflammatory Cytokines Regulate the Expression of Glycosyltransferases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Tumor-Associated Sialylated Glycans in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines
Two human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines MDAPanc-3 and MDAPanc-28 were treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 or IL-8, and the content of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens at the cell membrane was analyzed by flow cytometry. [Cytokine] Abstract

Transforming Growth Factor β Receptor Signaling Restrains Growth of Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells
Researchers inhibited transforming growth factor β receptor signaling by overexpression of a key inhibitor of this pathway, SMAD7, in the mouse pancreas, using a recently developed intraductal infusion method. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
A Review on the Possible Molecular Mechanism of Action of N-Acetylcysteine against Insulin Resistance and Type-2 Diabetes Development
There is a growing interest concerning the beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the early stages of type-2 diabetes development. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic and clinical applications of NAC are not fully understood. The authors focus on the protective effects of NAC against insulin resistance. [Clin Biochem] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Baxter Bioscience and Merrimack Pharmaceuticals Announce Filing for European Approval of MM-398, an Investigational Treatment for Post-Gemcitabine Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer
Baxter International Inc. and Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. jointly announced that Baxter has submitted a marketing authorization application to the European Medicines Agency for approval of MM-398, also known as ‘nal-IRI’, an investigational treatment for patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who have been previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy. [Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

American Diabetes Association Announces Award Winners at 75th Scientific Sessions
The American Diabetes Association announced this year’s recipients of the National Scientific & Health Care Achievement Awards. [The American Diabetes Association] Press Release

Oncolytics Biotech® Inc. Announces Receipt of Orphan Drug Status from the EMA for Pancreatic Cancer
Oncolytics Biotech® Inc. announced that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has granted Orphan Drug Designation for its lead product candidate, REOLYSIN®, for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. [Oncolytics Biotech® Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) 2015 Annual Meeting
June 24-27, 2015
Stockholm, Sweden

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Studentships – Diabetes Research (Diabetes UK)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Type 1 Diabetes Research (KU Leuven)

NEW Research Assistant/Associate – Pancreatic Cancer (University of Glasgow)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Obesity and Diabetes Research (University of Iowa)

Research Technician – Diabetes (University of Oxford)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Mechanisms of Cell Death of Normal Tissue Stem Cells (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)

Research Assistant Professor – Protein Misfolding and Toxicity (George Washington University)

Director – Center of Emphasis in Diabetes and Metabolism (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center)


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