Volume 5.41 | Oct 28

Pancreatic Cell News 5.41 October 28, 2014
Pancreatic Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
ANGPTL8/Betatrophin Does Not Control Pancreatic Beta Cell Expansion
Scientists report that angiopoietin-like protein 8 (Angptl8)−/− mice undergo entirely normal beta cell expansion in response to insulin resistance resulting from either a high-fat diet or from the administration of the insulin receptor antagonist S961. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
DIABETES & PANCREATITIS

Antioxidant Signaling Involving the Microtubule Motor KIF12 Is an Intracellular Target of Nutrition Excess in Beta Cells
Researchers demonstrate that the microtubule motor KIF12 mediates an antioxidant cascade in beta cells as an intracellular target of excess fat intake or “lipotoxicity.” KIF12 knockout mice suffer from hypoinsulinemic glucose intolerance due to increased beta cell oxidative stress. [Dev Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Inhibition of BACE2 Counteracts hIAPP-Induced Insulin Secretory Defects in Pancreatic β-Cells
Researchers found by global gene expression profiling that β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2) was up-regulated in the rat pancreatic β-cell line INS1E stably transfected with human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) gene. [FASEB J] Abstract

Pro-Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance Controls Pancreatic β-Cell Differentiation through the ERK1/2 Pathway
Researchers investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in β-cell development. Decreasing ROS production in vivo reduced β-cell differentiation. Moreover, in cultures of pancreatic explants, progenitors were highly sensitive to ROS stimulation and responded by generating β-cells. [Cell Death Dis]
Full Article

PDX-1 mRNA-Induced Reprogramming of Mouse Pancreas-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells In Vitro
Scientists demonstrated that mouse pancreas-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be transdifferentiated into effective glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells through transfecting synthetic modified PDX-1 mRNA in vitro. [Clin Exp Med] Abstract

Congo Red Modulates ACh-Induced Ca2+ Oscillations in Single Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Mice
Recent studies show that congo red exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its pharmacological profile remains unknown. In this study, scientists investigated the effects of congo red on ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Full Article

PANCREATIC CANCER

Extracellular Lumican Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth and Is Associated with Prolonged Survival after Surgery
Primary PDAC cells and recombinant human lumican protein were used to establish a working model to mimic the in vivo interactions between stromal lumican and PDAC cells. Using this model, scientists tested the effects of lumican on EGFR signaling via Akt and HIF-1α and its subsequent influence on glucose consumption, lactate production, intracellular ATP, and apoptotic cell death. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Inhibition of RAC1 GTPase Sensitizes Pancreatic Cancer Cells to G-Irradiation
Researchers show that Rac1 plays a critical role in the response of pancreatic cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR). Inhibition of Rac1 using specific inhibitor and dominant negative Rac1 mutant not only abrogates IR-induced G2 checkpoint activation, but also increases radiosensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. [Oncotarget] Full Article

RAGE Is Essential for Oncogenic KRAS-Mediated Hypoxic Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer
Scientists demonstrate that binding of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) to oncogenic KRAS facilitates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1)α activation and promotes pancreatic tumor growth under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia induces NF-κB-dependent and HIF1α-independent RAGE expression in pancreatic tumor cells. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Overexpression of Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27) Increases Gemcitabine Sensitivity in Pancreatic Cancer Cells through S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis
Researchers investigate the underlying mechanisms of HSP27-mediated gemcitabine sensitivity. Utilizing a pancreatic cancer cell model with stable HSP27 overexpression, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction were analyzed by flow cytometry, nuclear staining, immunoblotting and mitochondrial staining. [J Cell Mol Med]
Full Article

MicroRNA-100 Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Cells Growth and Sensitivity to Chemotherapy through Targeting FGFR3
The effects of overexpressing microRNA 100 (miR-100) on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were examined by cell proliferation essay in vitro. MIA PaCa-2 cells with endogenously overexpressed miR-100 were transplanted into null mice to examine tumor growth in vivo. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Use of β-Cell Transcription Factors in Engineering Artificial β Cells from Non-Pancreatic Tissue
This review compares putative target cells and the use of pancreatic transcription factors for gene modification, with the ultimate goal of engineering a glucose-responsive ‘artificial’ β cell that mimics the function of pancreatic β cells, while avoiding autoimmune destruction. [Gene Ther] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Clinical Trial to Evaluate Two Biothera Cancer Drugs for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
A Phase Ib clinical trial at the University of Illinois at Chicago will evaluate a new combination therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer that includes two Biothera cancer immunotherapy drug candidates. [Biothera] Press Release

Oramed Pharmaceuticals Reports Positive Top-Line Data from U.S. Phase IIa Trial with Oral Insulin in Type 1 Diabetes
Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc. reported positive top-line clinical results from its Phase IIa clinical trial of ORMD-0801, the company’s proprietary oral insulin capsules, to treat type 1 diabetes. [Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 20th Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) Annual Meeting
November 12-15, 2014
National Harbor, Maryland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Endothelial Dysfunction and Diabetes (Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar)

NEW Associate or Full Professor – Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolic Disease (University of California San Diego)

Postdoctoral Fellowship Position – Obesity and Diabetes Pathogenesis (NIDDK / NIH)

Postdoctoral Candidate – Pancreatic Cancer Research (UT Southwestern)

Research Assistant – Diabetes/Metabolic Health (The Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Biochemistry (University of Utah)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Genome Analysis (Ontario Institute for Cancer Research)

Full or Associate Professor – Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism (University of Pennsylvania)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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