Volume 5.35 | Sep 16

Pancreatic Cell News 5.35 September 16, 2014
Pancreatic Cell News
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Reversal of Diabetes with Insulin-Producing Cells Derived In Vitro from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Researchers describe a seven-stage protocol that efficiently converts human embryonic stem cells into insulin-producing cells. Stage 7 cells expressed key markers of mature pancreatic beta cells, including MAFA, and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion similar to that of human islets during static incubations in vitro. [Nat Biotechnol] Abstract | Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Inhibition of Ca2+-Independent Phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) Ameliorates Islet Infiltration and Incidence of Diabetes in NOD Mice
Scientists assessed the effects of iPLA2β inhibition on diabetes development. Administration of FKGK18, a reversible iPLA2β inhibitor, to non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice significantly reduced diabetes incidence in association with reduced insulitis, reflected by reductions in CD4+ T-cells and B-cells, improved glucose homeostasis, higher circulating insulin, and β-cell preservation. [Diabetes] Abstract

p21WAF1/Cip1 Limits Senescence and Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia Formation during Pancreatitis
Scientists investigated whether p21 down-regulation is implicated in controlling the early events of acinar cell trans-differentiation and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) formation. They found that p21 was strongly up-regulated in wild type acinar cells during pancreatitis while absent in ADM areas, suggesting that p21 down-regulation is associated with ADM formation. [J Pathol] Abstract

Autocrine Activation of P2Y1 Receptors Couples Ca2+ Influx to Ca2+ Release in Human Pancreatic Beta Cells
Investigators examined the effects of purinergic agonists and antagonists on membrane potential, membrane currents, intracellular Ca2+ and insulin secretion in human beta cells. [Diabetologia] Abstract

Novel Role for Matricellular Proteins in the Regulation of Islet β Cell Survival: The Effect of SPARC on Survival, Proliferation and Signaling
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that is important for the regulation of cell growth and adhesion. Researchers investigated the role of SPARC in the regulation of β cell growth and survival. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article


Pancreatic Cancer-Specific Cell Death Induced In Vivo by Cytoplasmic-Delivered Polyinosine-Polycytidylic Acid
Researchers investigated the potential therapeutic activity of a formulation of polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (pIC) with polyethylenimine ([pIC]PEI) in PDAC and investigated its mechanism of action. [pIC]PEI stimulated apoptosis in PDAC cells without affecting normal pancreatic epithelial cells. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Glucagon-Like-Peptide-1 Receptor Expression in Normal and Diseased Human Thyroid and Pancreas
221 human thyroid and pancreas samples were analyzed for glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) immunohistochemistry and compared with quantitative in vitro GLP1R autoradiography. All ductal pancreatic carcinomas are GLP1R negative, whereas 6/20 PanIN 1/2 and 0/12 PanIN 3 express GLP1R. [Mod Pathol] Abstract

Elongation Factor-2 Kinase Regulates TG2/β1 Integrin/Src/uPAR Pathway and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Mediating Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion
Researchers investigated the role of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) in cellular invasion and found that down-regulation of eEF-2K by siRNA or rottlerin displays impairment of pancreatic cancer cell invasion/migration with significant decreases in the expression of tissue transglutaminase, the multifunctional enzyme implicated in regulation of cell attachment, motility and survival. [J Cell Mol Med] Full Article

SUMO-Specific Protease 1 Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting MMP-9
Investigators show that sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) was upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of SENP1 by SENP1-siRNA inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, suggesting that SENP1 plays an important role in PDAC progression and metastasis. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

GRP78 Promotes the Invasion of Pancreatic Cancer Cells by FAK and JNK
To investigate the effect of glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78) on the invasion of pancreatic cancer, researchers used western blot and Transwell assay. They found Grp78 is expressed at lower levels in capan-2 and higher expressed in MiaPaCa-2 cells, and Grp78 expression levels were correlated with the invasion potentials of tumor cells. [Mol Cell Biochem] Abstract

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Early Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes in China
Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes are characterized by having relatively low bodyweight and significant β-cell deterioration. β-cell failure results in deficiency of insulin secretion, particularly at the early phase of insulin secretion in Chinese patients. Although data on antidiabetic drugs in Chinese patients are growing, there are still gaps in the evidence base. [Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
Inflammation May Be Key to Diabetes/Heart Disease Link
Inflammation may be the reason high blood sugar levels damage blood vessels, raising the possibility that anti-inflammatory medications might someday be used to lower the risk of blood vessel disease in people with diabetes. [Press release from the American Heart Association, Inc. discussing research presented at the American Heart Association’s High Blood Pressure Research Scientific Sessions 2014, San Francisco] Press Release

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Clinical Trial to Test Safety of Stem Cell-Derived Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, in partnership with ViaCyte, Inc. have launched the first-ever human Phase I/II clinical trial of a stem cell-derived therapy for patients with Type 1 diabetes. [UC San Diego] Press Release

ViaCyte, Inc. Awarded $16.6 Million Accelerated Development Pathway Grant from CIRM to Expand Clinical Development of its VC-01™ Diabetes Therapy Candidate
ViaCyte, Inc. announced that it has been selected to receive a $16.6 million Accelerated Development Pathway Award from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM). [ViaCyte, Inc.] Press Release

Beta-O2 Receives Grant from JDRF to Advance Clinical Development of the ßAir Bio-Artificial Pancreas as a Potential Cure for Type 1 Diabetes
Beta-O2 announced today that it has received a $500,000 grant from JDRF. The grant will be used to help fund a $1 million pilot human study of Beta-O2’s ßAir bio-artificial pancreas, in development as a treatment and potential cure for type 1 diabetes. [Beta-O2 Technologies Ltd. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa
October 7-9, 2014
La Jolla, United States

NEW Translational Regenerative Medicine Congress 2014
October 21-22, 2014
Leipzig, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
NEW Hepato-Pancreatic-Biliary Surgical Oncologist (European Institute of Oncology)

NEW Research Assistant/Laboratory Manager – Differentiation of Pancreatic Insulin-Producing Beta-Cells (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Position – Role of p38MAPK in the Development of Obesity and Obesity-Induced Diseases (Spanish National Cardiovascular Research Center [CNIC])

Research Officer / Postdoctoral Fellow – Beta Cell Regeneration (Garvan Institute of Medical Research)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cancer (Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Trainee – Pancreatic Cancer (UT Southwestern Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Metabolism / Diabetes / Cardiovascular Disease (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Diabetes and Inflammatory Diseases (University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine)

Principal Scientist – Diabetes Biology (Novo Nordisk China R&D Center)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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