Volume 5.31 | Aug 19

Pancreatic Cell News 5.31 August 19, 2014
Pancreatic Cell News
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Activated Macrophages Create Lineage-Specific Microenvironments for Pancreatic Acinar- and β-Cell Regeneration in Mice
Scientists used a saporin-conjugated antibody against CD11b to reduce the number of macrophages in mice with diphtheria toxin receptor-mediated cell ablation of pancreatic cells, and evaluated the effects on pancreatic regeneration. [Gastroenterology] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Peroxiredoxin 4 Improves Insulin Biosynthesis and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in Insulin-Secreting INS-1E Cells
Researchers examined the functional significance of peroxiredoxin 4 (Prdx4) on β-cell function with emphasis on insulin content and secretion during stimulation with nutrient secretagogues. Overexpression of Prdx4 in glucose-responsive insulin-secreting INS-1E cells significantly metabolized luminal hydrogen peroxide and improved the glucose-induced insulin secretion which was accompanied by the enhanced proinsulin mRNA transcription and insulin content. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Retinoic Acid Plays an Evolutionarily Conserved and Biphasic Role in Pancreas Development
Researchers produced a transgenic retinoic acid (RA) reporter, which demonstrated that pancreatic Notch-responsive cells directly respond to RA signaling through the canonical transcriptional pathway. Next, using a genetic lineage tracing approach, they demonstrated these progenitors produce endocrine cells following inhibition of RA signaling. [Dev Biol] Abstract

MafA Is Required for Postnatal Proliferation of Pancreatic β-Cells
Maturation of β-cells is accompanied by increased expression of MafA, an insulin gene transcription factor. Transcriptome analysis of MafA knockout islets revealed MafA is required for the expression of several molecules critical for β-cell function, including Glut2, ZnT8, Granuphilin, Vdr, Pcsk1 and Urocortin 3, as well as Prolactin receptor and its downstream target Cyclin D2. [PLoS One] Full Article

Involvement of RhoA/ROCK in Insulin Secretion of Pancreatic β-Cells in 3D Culture
Mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells were cultured in a rotating three-dimensional (3D) culture system to form islet-like aggregates. In the 3D-cultured MIN6 cells, more endocrine-specific genes were up-regulated, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased to a greater extent than in cells grown in monolayers. [Cell Tissue Res] Abstract


Nicotine Promotes Initiation and Progression of KRAS-Induced Pancreatic Cancer via Gata6-Dependent Dedifferentiation of Acinar Cells in Mice
Administration of nicotine accelerated transformation of pancreatic cells and tumor formation in RASG12V and KPC mice. Nicotine induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells by activating AKT-ERK-MYC signaling; this led to inhibition of Gata6 promoter activity, loss of GATA6 protein, and subsequent loss of acinar differentiation and hyperactivation of oncogenic KRAS. [Gastroenterology] Abstract

Dual Targeting of ErbB-2/ErbB-3 Results in Enhanced Antitumor Activity in Preclinical Models of Pancreatic Cancer
Researchers report that despite epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor overexpression, pancreatic cancer cells are more sensitive to NRG-1β than EGF in terms of Akt activation and cell proliferation. [Oncogenesis]
Full Article

Inhibition of Endoglin-GIPC Interaction Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth
Investigators evaluated the effects of targeting endoglin in pancreatic cancer both in vitro and in vivo. They analyzed the anti-proliferative effect of both RNAi-based and peptide ligand-based inhibition of endoglin in pancreatic cancer cell lines, the latter yielding a GAIP-interacting protein, C terminus (GIPC) PDZ domain-targeting lipopeptide with notable anti-proliferative activity. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

Embelin Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Progression by Directly Inducing Cancer Cell Apoptosis and Indirectly Restricting IL-6 Associated Inflammatory and Immune Suppress Cells
The anti-inflammation and anti-tumor effects of embelin on pancreatic cancer were investigated. Embelin significantly attenuated cells invasion, proliferation and induced apoptosis by down-regulating STAT3 and up-regulating p53 signaling pathways in vitro. [Cancer Lett] Abstract

The Actin-Bundling Protein TRIOBP-4 and -5 Promotes the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Researchers show that TRIOBP isoforms 4 and 5 (TRIOBP-4/-5) was up-regulated in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. Knockdown of TRIOBP-4/-5 led to a loss of filopodia and a decrease in cell motility. [Cancer Lett] Abstract

MicroRNA-1246 Expression Associated with CCNG2-Mediated Chemoresistance and Stemness in Pancreatic Cancer
The in vitro drug sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells was altered according to the microRNA (miR)-1246 expression via CCNG2. In vivo, scientists found that miR-1246 could increase tumor-initiating potential and induced drug resistance. [Br J Cancer] Abstract

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The Rise, Fall, and Resurgence of Immunotherapy in Type 1 Diabetes
Scientists summarize the most important approaches tested thus far in type 1 diabetes (T1D), beginning with the most successful preclinical studies in non-obese diabetic mice and ending with the latest disappointing clinical trials in humans. They also highlight recent stem cell-based trials, for which expectations in the scientific community and among individuals with T1D are high. [Pharmacol Res] Abstract

Pancreatic Stem Cells Remain Unresolved
Any cell types in the developing or adult pancreas that may act as pancreatic stem cells (PSC) would provide an alternative renewable source for endogenous regeneration. The authors summarize the latest progress and knowledge of such PSC, and discuss ways that facilitate the future development of this often controversial but crucial research. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
Head of Military Diabetes Institute Hopes to Put Breaks on Growing Epidemic
Dr. Robert Vigersky is the head of the Diabetes Institute at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. With a blend of civilian and military medical experiences, Vigersky has taken research, education, and technology related to the treatment of diabetes to a level unmatched at other medical facilities. [U.S. Army Medical Recruiting Brigade (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

UICOMP Receives Grant to Further Pancreatic Cancer Research
Research aimed at improving treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer got a boost at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria (UICOMP) thanks to a two-year $50,000 grant from the William E. McElroy Charitable Foundation. The McElroy Foundation grant, the third in as many years to UICOMP, will help fund work in identifying how some pancreatic cancers are resistant to chemotherapy and methods to overcome that resistance. [University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria] Press Release

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NEW 21st Stem Cell Network Workshop – Bioengineering and Stem Cells
September 23, 2014
Sydney, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Trainee – Pancreatic Cancer (UT Southwestern Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Biomarkers in Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Metabolism / Diabetes / Cardiovascular Disease (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Diabetes and Inflammatory Diseases (University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Positions – Diabetes Research (Sanofi)

Principal Scientist – Diabetes Biology (Novo Nordisk China R&D Center)

Postdoctoral Research Assistant – Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells (Queen Mary University of London)

Professorship – Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetes Pathogenesis (University of Southern Denmark)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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