Volume 4.33 | Aug 27

Pancreatic Cell News 4.33 August 27, 2013
Pancreatic Cell News
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TOP STORY
Key Protein Accelerates Diabetes in Two Ways
The same protein tells beta cells in the pancreas to stop making insulin and then to self-destruct as diabetes worsens, according to researchers. Specifically, the research revealed that a protein called TXNIP controls the ability of beta cells to make insulin, the hormone that regulates blood-sugar levels. [Press release from University of Alabama at Birmingham discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine]
Press Release | Abstract
New TeSR™-E8™ is Here For Feeder-Free Culture of Human ES Cells and iPS Cells
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
TGF-Beta Superfamily Member Nodal Stimulates Human Beta Cell Proliferation while Maintaining Cellular Viability
Scientists investigated the effects of Nodal and Cripto on human beta cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. In human pancreas and isolated human islets, they observed Nodal mRNA and protein expression, with protein expression observed in beta and alpha cells. [Endocrinology] Abstract

Testosterone Protects against Glucotoxicity Induced Apoptosis of Pancreatic ß-Cells (INS-1) and Male Mouse Pancreatic Islets
Investigators examined the anti-apoptotic mechanism of testosterone in pancreatic ß cells cultured in high-glucose medium. [Endocrinology] Abstract

Improved MIN6 ß-Cell Function on Self-Assembled Peptide Amphiphile Nanomatrix Inscribed with Extracellular Matrix-Derived Cell Adhesive Ligands
Compared to control groups cultured on biologically inert substrates, MIN6 ß-cells cultured on peptide amphiphiles functionalized with YIGSR and RGDS cell adhesive ligands exhibit elevated insulin secretion in responses to glucose and also form ß-cell clusters. [Macromol Biosci] Abstract

Characterization of FKGK18 as Inhibitor of Group VIA Ca2+-Independent Phospholipase A2 (iPLA2ß): Candidate Drug for Preventing Beta-Cell Apoptosis and Diabetes
Recently, a fluoroketone-based compound (FKGK18) was described as a potent inhibitor of iPLA2ß. Here scientists characterized its inhibitory profile in beta-cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Oxidative Stress Plays a Role in High Glucose-Induced Activation of Pancreatic Stellate Cells
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 hours. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

PANCREATIC CANCER

Reduced Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor IA in Pancreatic Cancer Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis
In vitro inactivation of SMAD4-dependent bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling increases proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, whereas inactivation of BMP signaling in SMAD4-negative cell does not change the proliferation and invasion or leads to an opposite effect. [Brit J Cancer] Abstract

Moringa Oleifera Aqueous Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Nuclear Factor-KappaB and Increases Cytotoxic Effect of Chemotherapy in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Researchers investigated the effect of aqueous Moringa Oleifera leaf extract on cultured human pancreatic cancer cells – Panc-1, p34, and COLO 357, and whether it can potentiate the effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on these cells. [BMC Complement Altern Med] Abstract | Full Article

The Effect of Simvastatin on Lipid Droplets Accumulation in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells and Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Scientists assessed in non-malignant as well as cancer cells the impact of simvastatin on the amount of cytosolic lipid droplets implicated in many biological processes including proliferation, inflammation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis, necrosis or growth arrest. [Lipids Health Dis] Abstract

MiR-148a Regulates the Growth and Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer by Targeting CCKBR and Bcl-2
Researchers showed significant downregulation of miR-148a in 28 pancreatic cancer tissue samples and five pancreatic cancer cell lines, compared with their non-tumor counterparts by qRT-PCR. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

miR-143 Decreases COX-2 mRNA Stability and Expression in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Pancreatic cancer tissues and cells exhibit decreased microRNAs (miRNA), elevated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and increased prostaglandin E2 resulting in increased cancer growth and metastases. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Differentiation Doesn't Have to be Difficult - Get Easy, Standardized hPSC Differentiation
 
REVIEWS
Signaling Mechanisms of Glucose-Induced F-Actin Remodeling in Pancreatic Islet ß Cells
The authors provide an historical look at the emergent focus on the role of the actin cytoskeleton and its regulation of insulin secretion, leading up to the cutting-edge research in progress in the field today. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

Molecular Basis of Potassium Channels in Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells
The authors give an overview of K+ channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which are known from other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. [Channels] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
OncoGenex Announces that the Rainier™ Clinical Trial Evaluating Apatorsen (OGX-427) in Combination with ABRAXANE® plus Gemcitabine in Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Is Now Open for Enrollment
OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced initiation of the Rainier™ clinical trial, an investigator-sponsored, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II trial evaluating apatorsen in combination with ABRAXANE® and gemcitabine in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer. [OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

MannKind Reports Positive Data from a Phase III Clinical Study of AFREZZA in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
MannKind Corporation announced positive preliminary results from Study 171, a Phase III clinical study of AFREZZA® (insulin human [rDNA origin]) Inhalation Powder, an investigational, ultra rapid-acting mealtime insulin therapy, administered using MannKind’s next-generation (Gen2) inhaler, in patients with type 1 diabetes. [MannKind Corporation] Press Release

Incyte Provides Top-Line Results from Phase II Proof-of-Concept Trial of Ruxolitinib in Patients with Refractory Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer
Incyte Corporation announced top-line results of the Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled RECAP trial of ruxolitinib, its oral JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, in combination with capecitabine in patients with recurrent or treatment refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer. [Incyte Corporation] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW World Diabetes Congress
December 2-6, 2013
Melbourne, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Mechanism of Pancreatic Beta Cell Proliferation (Joslin Diabetes Center/Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Differentiation of Human Pancreatic Endocrine Precursor Cells to Beta-Cells (AstraZeneca)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pancreatic Beta Cell Regeneration and Survival (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Diabetes and Molecular Endocrinology (University of Illinois)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Molecular Mechanisms of Pancreatic Beta Cell Dysfunction (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Senior Scientist – Pancreas Development (AstraZeneca)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

PhD Positions – Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Acinar Cell Proliferation (University Hospital Zuerich)

Postdoctoral Researcher (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)


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