Volume 4.30 | Aug 6

Pancreatic Cell News 4.30 August 6, 2013
Pancreatic Cell News
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TOP STORY
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Induced by Pancreatic Beta Cell Expression of IL-15 and IL-15Ra
To investigate the role of IL-15/IL-15Ra in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D), the authors generated double transgenic mice with pancreatic ß-cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15Ra. The mice developed hyperglycemia, marked mononuclear cell infiltration, ß-cell destruction, and anti-insulin autoantibodies that mimic early human T1D. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract
Take the 'if' out of 'diff': Reduce variability when differentiating to endothelial cells
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The PACAP-Regulated Gene Selenoprotein T Is Abundantly Expressed in Mouse and Human Beta Cells and Its Targeted Inactivation Impairs Glucose Tolerance
To elucidate the role of Selenoprotein T (SelT) in ß-cells, investigators generated, using a Cre-Lox strategy, a conditional pancreatic ß-cell SelT knockout C57BL/6J mice (SelT-insKO) in which SelT gene disruption is under the control of the rat insulin promoter Cre gene. Glucose administration revealed that male SelT-insKO mice display impaired glucose tolerance. [Endocrinology] Abstract

Macrophage-Secreted Cytokines Drive Pancreatic Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia through NF-?B and MMPs
Researchers found that both RANTES and tumor necrosis factor a induce acinar-to-ductal metaplasia through activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and its target genes involved in regulating survival, proliferation, and degradation of extracellular matrix. [J Cell Biol] Abstract | Press Release

GPR40 Protein Levels Are Crucial to the Regulation of Stimulated Hormone Secretion in Pancreatic Islets. Lessons from Spontaneous Obesity-Prone and Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetes in Rats
Scientists explored the influence of GPR40 protein levels on hormone secretion in islets from two rat models of spontaneous type 2 diabetes displaying either hyperlipidemia or hyperglycemia. [Mol Cell Endocrinol] Abstract

Pancreatic Islet Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by MicroRNA Overexpression
Human embryonic stem cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing human microRNA (miR)-375 precursor and aggregated to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) for up to 21 days. Morphological assessment, immunocytochemistry and DTZ staining confirmed that miR-375-induced hEBs have similar characteristics to those of mature islets. [J Tissue Eng Regen Med] Abstract

Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress
Researchers investigated the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. [Nutrients] Abstract | Full Article

PANCREATIC CANCER

Early Epigenetic Downregulation of WNK2 Kinase during Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Development
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is usually incurable. Contrary to genetic mechanisms involved in PDAC pathogenesis, epigenetic alterations are ill defined. Here, scientists determined the contribution of epigenetically silenced genes to the development of PDAC. [Oncogene] Abstract

Protease Activated Receptor-2 Induces Migration of Pancreatic Cancer Cells in an Extracellular ATP Dependent Manner
Investigators showed that protease-activated receptor 2 does not affect pancreatic cancer cell proliferation but significantly induce migration of pancreatic cancer cells in scratch assays. [J Thromb Hemost] Abstract

FGFR3 Has Tumor Suppressor Properties in Cells with Epithelial Phenotype
FGFR3 expression was forced in pancreatic cell lines. The receptor exerted dual effects: it suppressed tumor growth in pancreatic epithelial-like cells and had oncogenic properties in pancreatic mesenchymal-like cells. [Mol Cancer] Abstract | Full Article

S100A4 mRNA Expression Level Is a Predictor of Radioresistance of Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Improving poor outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer requires a greater understanding of the biological mechanisms contributing to radioresistance. Scientists, therefore, sought to identify genes involved in the radioresistance of pancreatic cancer cells. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

SOX2 Promotes Dedifferentiation and Imparts Stem Cell-Like Features to Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Researchers show that Sex-determining region Y-Box2 (SOX2) is not expressed in normal pancreatic acinar or ductal cells. However, ectopic expression of SOX2 is observed in 19.3% of human pancreatic tumors. [Oncogenesis] Full Article

New TeSR™-E8™ is Here For Feeder-Free Culture of Human ES Cells and iPS Cells
 
REVIEWS
Pancreas Organogenesis: From Lineage Determination to Morphogenesis
The authors provide an overview of the current understanding of pancreatic lineage determination and organogenesis, and they examine future implications of these findings for treatment of diabetes mellitus through cell replacement. [Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol] Abstract

Epigenetic Regulation of Pancreatic Islets
Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA expression, contribute to regulate islet cell development and function. Indeed, epigenetic mechanisms were recently shown to be involved in the control of endocrine cell fate decision, islet differentiation, ß-cell identity, proliferation, and mature function. [Curr Diab Rep] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
ImmusanT Initiates Study at Joslin Diabetes Center to Investigate Relationship between Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes
ImmusanT announced that it has initiated a clinical research study to explore the immunologic relationship between celiac disease and Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to further understand the underlying cause of T1D. [ImmusanT] Press Release

Medistem Enters Collaboration with Boston Academic Teaching Hospital to Expand Preclinical Data in Type 1 Diabetes
Medistem, Inc. announced it has entered into collaboration with Reza Abdi, M.D., Harvard Medical School. Under the collaboration, the Company will provide Dr. Abdi with its Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERCs) and it is expected that his research would support FDA clearance to initiate clinical trials to use ERCs as a treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. [FierceBiotech Research] Press Release

Boehringer Ingelheim and Lilly Initiate Post-Marketing Trial with a Planned Enrollment of More Than 8,000 Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in 24 Countries
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Eli Lilly and Company announced enrollment of the first patient into a cardiovascular and renal outcomes trial for linagliptin tablets. [Eli Lilly and Company]
Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 8th National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference
November 3-6, 2013
Liverpool, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Molecular Mechanisms of Pancreatic Beta Cell Dysfunction (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Research Associate – Pancreatic Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Senior Scientist – Pancreas Development (AstraZeneca)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Diabetes Research (Sanford Health)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Molecular Determinants of Resistance to Chemotherapy and Radiation (The Ohio State University – Comprehensive Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Pluripotent Stem Cells to Islets (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Platelet Biology and Diabetes (Thomas Jefferson University, Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

PhD Positions – Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Acinar Cell Proliferation (University Hospital Zuerich)

Postdoctoral Researcher (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)


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