Volume 4.20 | May 28

Pancreatic Cell News 4.20 May 28, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | ReviewsIndustry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
Brief Demethylation Step Allows the Conversion of Adult Human Skin Fibroblasts into Insulin-Secreting Cells
Adult human skin fibroblasts were exposed for 18 h to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine, followed by a three-step protocol for the induction of endocrine pancreatic differentiation that lasted 36 d. At the end of this treatment, 35 ± 8.9% fibroblasts became pancreatic converted cells that acquired an epithelial morphology, produced insulin, and then released the hormone in response to a physiological glucose challenge in vitro. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

DIABETES

Nov/Ccn3, a Novel Transcriptional Target of FoxO1, Impairs Pancreatic β-Cell Function
Investigators report the characterization of Nov/Ccn3 as a novel transcriptional target of FoxO1 in pancreatic β-cells. Their functional studies reveal that CCN3 impairs β-cell proliferation concomitantly with a reduction in cAMP levels. [PLoS One] Full Article

Smad Signaling Pathways Regulate Pancreatic Endocrine Development
Researchers found that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily signaling, which has been implicated in many developmental processes, plays a key role in regulating pancreatic endocrine maturation and development. Specifically, the intracellular mediators of TGF-β signaling, smad2 and smad3, along with their inhibitor smad7, appear to mediate this process. [Dev Biol] Abstract

Impaired Pancreatic Beta Cell Function by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia
Researchers investigated pancreatic beta cell function in C57BL6 mice exposed to 30 days of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Pancreatic beta cell morphology was unaltered in CIH exposed mice. Insulin content was decreased in CIH exposed beta cells, and this effect was associated with increased pro-insulin levels. [Exp Physiol] Abstract

Increased Susceptibility to Streptozotocin and Impeded Regeneration Capacity of Beta-Cells in Adult Offspring of Malnourished Rats
Scientists determined whether early malnutrition influences the vulnerability and the regeneration capacity of beta-cells after streptozotocin (STZ) damage at adulthood. Although control and low protein rats had equivalent pancreatic insulin content and beta-cell volume density at d34, hyperglycemia appeared earlier and was more dramatic in low protein than in control rats. STZ treatment increased beta-cell proliferation similarly in both groups. [Acta Physiol] Abstract

B-Cell Translocation Gene 2 Positively Regulates GLP-1-Stimulated Insulin Secretion via Induction of PDX-1 in Pancreatic β-Cells
Researchers demonstrated that B-cell translocation gene 2 is a crucial regulator in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-induced insulin gene expression and insulin secretion via upregulation of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) in pancreatic β-cells. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

PANCREATIC CANCER

Novel Curcumin Loaded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Pancreatic Cancer Treatment
The authors evaluated the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of a novel curcumin loaded magnetic nanoparticle (MNP-CUR) formulation in pancreatic cancer. Human pancreatic cancer cells exhibited efficient internalization of the MNP-CUR formulation in a dose dependent manner. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

PG545, an Angiogenesis and Heparanase Inhibitor, Reduces Primary Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Experimental Pancreatic Cancer
Scientists evaluated the therapeutic potential of PG545, an angiogenesis and heparanase inhibitor, in experimental pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PG545 inhibited the proliferation, migration and colony formation of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

Modulation of Pancreatic Tumor Potential by Overexpression of Protein Kinase C [Beta]1
PANC1-protein kinase C (PKC)[beta]1 and control cells were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. PANC1-PKC[beta]1 cells displayed a lower growth capacity associated with the down-regulation of the MEK/ERK pathway and cyclin expression. [Pancreas] Abstract

L-Arginine-NO-cGMP Signaling Pathway in Pancreatitis
Scientists investigated the co-expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with enzymes involved in regulation of NO signaling in the normal human pancreas and in pancreatitis. They found that the whole NO signaling machinery was up-regulated in pancreatitis, especially within the exocrine compartment. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Mesothelin Binding to Cancer Antigen 125/MUC16 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion via MMP-7 Activation
Using sophisticated bioengineering and molecular biology tools, scientists report that the binding of mesothelin (MSLN) to mucin-16 (MUC16) markedly enhances pancreatic cancer (PC) cell motility and invasion via the selective induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7. MSLN-mediated MMP-7 upregulation in MUC16-expressing PC cells occurs via a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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REVIEWS

Incretin Hormones and Beta-Cell Mass Expansion: What We Know and What Is Missing?
The role and the molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1 and its agonists regulate beta-cell mass have not been fully investigated. This review focuses the current findings and the missing understanding of the effects of incretin hormones on beta-cell mass expansion. [Arch Physiol Biochem] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

NIH Funds Studies to Improve Type 2 and Prediabetes Treatment
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is looking for volunteers to take part in one of three clinical trials to improve and preserve the production of insulin in people with prediabetes or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The project is called the Restoring Insulin Secretion study. [National Institutes of Health]
Press Release

Celgene Announces U.S. FDA Grants Priority Review for ABRAXANE® sNDA in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
Celgene International Sàrl announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has assigned a Priority Review designation to the supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for the use of ABRAXANE® in combination with gemcitabine for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. [Celgene International Sàrl] Press Release

Maryland Stem Cell Research Commission Funds 31 New Research Proposals in FY 2013
The Maryland Stem Cell Research Commission has completed its review of the 171 applications received in response to its FY 2013 Requests for Applications. The board of directors of the Maryland Technology Development Corporation approved the Commission’s recommendation to fund 31 new proposals with the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund’s $10.4 million FY2013 budget. [Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Gordon Research Seminar – Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering
July 27-28, 2013
Holderness, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Beta Cell Biology (Sanford Research/University of South Dakota)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Microenvironment & Pancreatic Cancer (INSERMU1068)


PhD Scholarships – Diabetes (Danish Diabetes Academy)


Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell and Cancer Biology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)


PhD Positions – Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Acinar Cell Proliferation (University Hospital Zuerich)


Postdoctoral Researcher (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pancreatic Beta Cell Regeneration and Survival (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

Research Associate – Progression and Metastasis of Pancreatic and Breast Cancer (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)


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