Volume 4.16 | Apr 30

Pancreatic Cell News 4.16 April 30, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
Potential Diabetes Breakthrough
Researchers have discovered a hormone that holds promise for a dramatically more effective treatment of type 2 diabetes, a metabolic illness afflicting an estimated 26 million Americans. They believe that the hormone might also have a role in treating type 1, or juvenile, diabetes. [Press release from Harvard University discussing online prepublication in Cell]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Video

Achieve Superior Differentiation of Mouse MSC & MEF into Osteoblasts with the New MesenCult™ Osteogenic Stimulatory Kit (Mouse)
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

DIABETES

No Evidence for β Cell Neogenesis in Murine Adult Pancreas
Scientists found that β cell neogenesis predominantly occurs during embryogenesis, decreases dramatically shortly after birth, and is completely absent in adults across various models of β cell loss, β cell growth and regeneration, and inflammation. Moreover, they demonstrated upregulation of neurogenin 3 in both proliferating ducts and preexisting β cells in the ligated pancreatic tail after pancreatic ductal ligation. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Systemic Regulation of the Age-Related Decline of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Replication
The authors demonstrated that a systemic factor found in the young circulation is able to increase the proliferation rate of old pancreatic beta-cells. Old mice parabiosed to young mice have increased beta-cell replication compared with unjoined old mice or old mice parabiosed to old mice. [Diabetes] Abstract

Sustained Function of Alginate-Encapsulated Human Islet Cell Implants in the Peritoneal Cavity of Mice Leading to a Pilot Study in a Type 1 Diabetic Patient
Cultured human islet cells were equally distributed over free and alginate-encapsulated grafts before implantation in, respectively, the kidney capsule and the peritoneal cavity of non-obese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency and alloxan-induced diabetes. Scientists report that free implants with low beta cell purity were non-functional and underwent 90% beta cell loss. [Diabetologia] Abstract

The DPP-4 Inhibitor Linagliptin Restores β-Cell Function & Survival in Human Isolated Islets through GLP-1 Stabilization
Scientists investigated the effect of linagliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, on β-cell function and survival. Linagliptin restored β-cell function and turnover, which was impaired when islets were exposed to elevated glucose, palmitate, cytokines or H2O2. [J Clin Endocr Metab] Abstract

SAD-A Kinase Enhances Insulin Secretion as a Downstream Target of GLP-1 Signaling in Pancreatic β-Cells
Researchers investigated a role of SAD-A, an AMPK-related kinase, in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in mice with conditional SAD-A deletion. They showed that selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas impaired incretin’s effect on GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance. [Mol Cell Biol] Abstract

The MDM2 Inhibitor Nutlin-3 Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus and Increases Serum Level of Interleukin-12p40
The role of p53 with respect to diabetes mellitus appears highly controversial. To address this issue, the authors used the cis-imidazoline compound Nutlin-3, an inhibitor of MDM2/p53 interaction, which represents a potent and selective non-genotoxic activator of the p53 pathway both in in vivo and in vitro experimental settings. [Acta Diabetol] Abstract

PANCREATIC CANCER

Epigenetic Regulation of SOX9 by the NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells
To investigate epigenetic regulation of genes in the tumor-initiating population of pancreatic cancer cells, which are also termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), the authors conducted epigenetic arrays in PANC1 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cell lines and compared the global DNA methylation status of CpG promoters in invasive cells, demonstrated to be CSCs, to their non-invasive counterparts, or non-CSCs. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Dual Roles of Hemidesmosomal Proteins in the Pancreatic Epithelium: The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Decides
Scientists report the presence of mature type-1 hemidesmosomes (HDs) comprising the integrin α6β4 and bullous pemphigoid antigen BP180 in the human pancreatic ductal epithelium. Importantly, HDs are shown to disassemble during pancreatic carcinogenesis. [Oncogene] Abstract

Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation Is Anti-Apoptotic and Maintains Constitutive NF-Kappa B Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Investigators observed increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux and hyper-O-GlcNAcylation in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC hyper-O-GlcNAcylation was associated with elevation of OGT and reduction of the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

In Vitro Cell Tests of Pancreatic Malignant Tumor Cells by Photothermotherapy Based on DMSO Porous Silicon Colloids
Dimethyl sulfoxide porous silicon (DMSO-PSi) colloid, which DMSO was used as a surfactant suitable for inhibiting the agglomeration of PSi nanoparticles was prepared for use in cancer photothermotherapy. The photothermal effect of the DMSO-PSi colloid was found to be high enough to destroy cancer cells. [Laser Med Sci] Abstract

Learn More: Column-Free Enrichment of Mouse Mammary Stem & Progenitor Cells

REVIEWS

Circulating MicroRNAs as Novel Biomarkers for Diabetes Mellitus
Hundreds of microRNAs (miRNAs) are actively or passively released in the circulation and can be used to evaluate health status and disease progression. Both type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with distinct modifications in the profile of miRNAs in the blood, which are sometimes detectable several years before the disease manifests. [Nat Rev Endocrinol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the pancreatic cell research field.
INDUSTRY NEWS

Merck & Co., Inc. and Pfizer Enter Worldwide Collaboration Agreement to Develop and Commercialize Ertugliflozin, an Investigational Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes
Merck & Co., Inc. and Pfizer Inc. announced that they have entered into a worldwide collaboration agreement for the development and commercialization of Pfizer’s ertugliflozin, an investigational oral sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitor being evaluated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. [Merck & Co., Inc.]
Press Release

Islet Sciences Receives Japanese Patent Covering New Medications for Diabetes
Islet Sciences, Inc., a biotechnology company engaged in the research, development and commercialization of patented technologies for people with diabetes, announced the receipt of a Japanese Patent for allowed claims. [Islet Sciences] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW 17th International Congress of Developmental Biology 
June 16-20, 2013
Cancun, Mexico

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW PhD Studentship – Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (German Diabetes Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)

Scientist/Specialist – Mitochondrial Function (The Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic Cancer (UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pancreatic Beta Cell Regeneration and Survival (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

Research Associate – Progression and Metastasis of Pancreatic and Breast Cancer (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)


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