Volume 4.09 | Mar 12

Pancreatic Cell News 4.09 March 12, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
B Cells Promote Inflammation in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes through Regulation of T-Cell Function and an Inflammatory Cytokine Profile
Investigators demonstrated that B cells from type 2 diabetes (T2D) (but not non-T2D) subjects support proinflammatory T-cell function in obesity/T2D through contact-dependent mechanisms. In contrast, human monocytes increased proinflammatory T-cell cytokines in both T2D and non-T2D analyses. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

New: STEMdiff™ Definitive Endoderm Kit For Easy, Standardized hPSC Differentiation
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

DIABETES

Ku70 Functions in Addition to Nonhomologous End Joining in Pancreatic Beta-Cells: A Connection to Beta-Catenin Regulation

To further delineate the function of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), researchers analyzed mice deficient for another key NHEJ factor, Ku70, to discover the effect of cellular responses to DNA damage in pancreatic β-cells on cellular proliferation and glucose homeostasis. Analysis of Ku70-/- pancreatic β-cells revealed an accumulation of DNA damage and activation of p53-dependent cellular senescence. [Diabetes] Abstract

Identification of ATP Synthase as a Lipid Peroxide Protein Adduct in Pancreatic Islets from Humans with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for impaired β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Lipid peroxides caused by reactive oxygen species are damaging to body tissues. The authors report that lipid peroxide-protein adducts occur in β-cells in the nondiabetic state and in diabetes. [J Clin Endocr Metab] Abstract

Neurogenin3 Cooperates with Foxa2 to Autoactivate Its Own Expression
Scientists showed that the broadly expressed endodermal forkhead factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 can cooperate synergistically to amplify Neurogenin3 autoregulation in vitro. However, only Foxa2 colocalizes with Neurogenin3 in pancreatic progenitors, thus indicating a primary role for this factor in regulating Neurogenin3 expression in vivo. [J Biol Chem] Abstract

Exendin-4 Protects Hypoxic Islets from Oxidative Stress and Improves Islet Transplantation Outcome
Investigators report that exendin-4 enhanced Akt phosphorylation of β-cells and insulin released from them. It even augmented insulin secretion from islets cultivated at hypoxic conditions. [Endocrinology] Abstract

Role of BMP Signaling in Pancreatic Progenitor Differentiation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Scientists report that human embryonic stem cells were differentiated into PDX1 positive pancreatic progenitor stage following their established protocol with few modifications, and then the progenitor cells were passaged in a defined proliferation medium. [Stem Cells Rev] Abstract

PANCREATIC CANCER

MAZ-Binding G4-Decoy with Locked Nucleic Acid and Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid Modifications Suppresses KRAS in Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Delays Tumor Growth in Mice
Investigators report that myc-associated zinc-finger (MAZ) activates KRAS transcription. To knockdown oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells, they designed oligonucleotides that mimicked one of the G-quadruplexes formed by nuclease-hypersensitive element (G4-decoys). [Nucleic Acids Res] Full Article

Dormant Cancer Cells Contribute to Residual Disease in a Model of Reversible Pancreatic Cancer
To experimentally address whether c-Myc is essential for the growth and survival of cancer cells, researchers developed a novel mouse model that allows a temporally and spatially controlled expression of this oncogene in pancreatic progenitors and derived lineages of the exocrine pancreas. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Alkaline Phosphatase Alkaline Phosphatase Placental-Like 2 Is a Novel Pancreatic Carcinoma-Associated Protein
To identify novel pancreatic cancer biomarkers that can facilitate early diagnosis and also help in the development of effective therapeutics, scientists developed RNA aptamers targeting pancreatic cancer by cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment approach. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Targeting miR-21 for the Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer
Researchers demonstrated that lentiviral vectors-transduced human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) efficiently downregulated microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression, both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, cell proliferation was strongly inhibited and PDA-derived cell lines died by apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. [Mol Ther] Abstract

The Differentiation of Pancreatic Tumor-Initiating Cells by Vitronectin Can Be Blocked by Cilengitide
Scientists used a sphere formation assay to enrich putative tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and used human serum as a driver of differentiation. They demonstrated that by using specific blocking reagents that they can inhibit the differentiation process and maintain TIC-associated markers and genes. [Pancreas] Abstract

New: Directed Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells - A Cell Stem Cell Poster

REVIEWS

Iron and Diabetes Risk
The link between iron and diabetes was first recognized in pathologic conditions-hereditary hemochromatosis and thalassemia-but high levels of dietary iron also impart diabetes risk. Iron plays a direct and causal role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by β cell failure and insulin resistance. [Cell Metab] Abstract
SCIENCE NEWS

American Diabetes Association Releases New Research Estimating Annual Cost of Diabetes at $245 Billion
The American Diabetes Association released new research estimating the total costs of diagnosed diabetes have risen to $245 billion in 2012 from $174 billion in 2007, when the cost was last examined. This figure represents a 41 percent increase over a five year period. [Press release from The American Diabetes Association discussing research to be published in Diabetes Care] Press Release

Study: Diabetic Medication May Protect Patients from Developing Heart Failure
A class of medications commonly prescribed to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients appears to protect them from developing heart failure, according to a study at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. [Press release from Henry Ford Hospital discussing research presented at The American College of Cardiology 2013 Annual Meeting, San Francisco] Press Release

INDUSTRY NEWS

Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Opposes Sequestration Cuts to National Institutes of Health & Cancer Research Grants
The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network is calling attention to the potential effects sequestration will have on medical research, and specifically pancreatic cancer research. The onset of sequestration could lead to significant and harmful cuts to the budget of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Cancer Institute, which will affect cancer research grants. According to some estimates, medical research supported by the NIH would be cut by an estimated $1.5 billion, including more than a $250 million reduction in cancer research funding in 2013 alone. [Pancreatic Cancer Action Network] Press Release

JDRF Applauds the Government of Alberta’s Commitment in Funding an Insulin Pump Program for Albertans Living with Type 1 Diabetes
JDRF applauds the Government of Alberta’s commitment in the 2013 Provincial Budget to fund an insulin pump program for eligible Albertans living with type 1 diabetes. [JDRF] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW 13th International Workshop on Langerhans Cells
October 10-13, 2013
Amsterdam, Netherlands

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Researcher (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic Beta-Cell Dysfunction (Weill Cornell Medical College)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreas Development (INSERM)

PhD Studentship – Developmental Genes in Adult Pancreas Homeostasis & Energy Metabolism (Helmholtz Zentrum München)

Research Position – Diabetes Research (Johns Hopkins University)

Senior Scientist (Spiber Technologies AB)

Postdoctoral Position – Basic Diabetes Research (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechano-Signaling in the Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer Progression (Fox Chase Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position (New York University)

PhD position (University Hospital Wuerzburg)


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