Volume 4.07 | Feb 26

Pancreatic Cell News 4.07 February 26, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
Reprogramming Cells to Fight Diabetes
Researchers discovered that many genes in alpha cells are marked by both activating- and repressing-histone modifications. This included many genes important in beta-cell function. In one state, when a certain gene is turned off, the gene can be readily activated by removing a modification that represses the histone. [Press release from the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania discussing the online prepublications in Journal of Clinical Investigation] Press Release | Full Article

Gain Hands-On Training, New Course: Differentiation of hPSCs to Definitive Endoderm
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

DIABETES

Colony-Forming Cells in the Adult Mouse Pancreas Are Expandable in Matrigel and Form Endocrine/Acinar Colonies in Laminin Hydrogel
Scientists developed two pancreatic colony assays that enable quantitative and functional analyses of progenitor-like cells isolated from dissociated adult murine pancreas. They found that a methylcellulose-based semisolid medium containing Matrigel allows growth of duct-like “Ring/Dense” colonies from a rare population of total pancreatic single cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Fetal Pancreas Transplants Are Dependent on Prolactin for Their Development and Prevent Type 1 Diabetes in Syngeneic but Not Allogeneic Mice
Researchers studied the capacity of early fetal pancreases from mouse embryos to develop into functional pancreatic islets producing insulin after transplantation in syngeneic and allogeneic recipients. [Diabetes] Abstract

NADPH Oxidase Inhibition Prevents Beta Cell Dysfunction Induced by Prolonged Elevation of Oleate in Rodents
The authors investigated whether pharmacological or genetic inhibition of NADPH oxidase could prevent NEFA-induced beta cell dysfunction in vivo. [Diabetologia] Full Article

Metabolome Response to Glucose in the β-Cell Line INS-1 832/13
To study metabolic changes during glucose stimulated insulin secretion, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of 87 metabolites temporally following a change in glucose from 3 mM to 10 mM glucose and in response to increasing concentrations of glucose in the INS-1 832/13 β-cell line. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Topologically Heterogeneous Beta Cell Adaptation in Response to High-Fat Diet in Mice
Researchers investigated beta cell adaptation throughout the pancreas in a model of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice. [PLoS One] Full Article

PANCREATIC CANCER

Biodegradable Nanocapsules as siRNA Carriers for Mutant K-Ras Gene Silencing of Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells
Cationic poly(lactic acid) (CPLA)-based degradable nanocapsules (NCs) are utilized as novel carriers of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for effective gene silencing of pancreatic cancer cells. These CPLA-NCs can readily form nanoplexes with K-Ras siRNA and over 90% transfection efficiency is achieved using the nanoplexes. [Small] Abstract

Different Patterns of Akt and ERK Feedback Activation in Response to Rapamycin, Active-Site mTOR Inhibitors and Metformin in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
The authors demonstrated that treatment of PANC-1 or MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells with either rapamycin or active-site mTOR inhibitors suppressed S6K and S6 phosphorylation induced by insulin and the GPCR agonist neurotensin. [PLoS One] Full Article

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Pancreatic Stellate Cell Activation and Extracellular Matrix Formation
Researchers investigated the potential anti-fibrogenic role of bone morphogenetic proteins in the pancreas using an in vivo chronic pancreatitis model and an in vitro pancreatic stellate cell model. [Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol] Abstract

Lactate Dehydrogenase A Is Overexpressed in Pancreatic Cancer and Promotes the Growth of Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Investigators found that the expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was elevated in the clinical pancreatic cancer samples. Forced expression of LDHA promoted the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, while knocking down the expression of LDHA inhibited cell growth dramatically. [Tumour Biol] Abstract

New TeSR™-E8™ is Here, For Feeder-Free Culture of Human ES Cells and iPS Cells

REVIEWS

New Horizons in Cellular Regulation by Inositol Polyphosphates: Insights from the Pancreatic β-Cell
Using the β-cell as their prime but not exclusive example, the authors examine the inositol polyphosphates in three main groups: 1) inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and its influence on Ca2+ signaling, specifically in a cell in which cytoplasmic-free Ca2+ concentration is principally increased by plasma membrane standing voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; 2) higher inositol polyphosphates including a novel second messenger inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate and a regulatory role for inositol hexakisphosphate in β-cell Ca2+ homeostasis and exo- and endocytosis; and 3) inositol pyrophosphates and their role in β-cell exocytosis, together with the exciting possibility of being novel targets for therapy in diabetes. [Pharmacol Rev] Abstract

Anti-Diabetic Medications and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effect of metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin on the risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus. [Am J Gastroenterol] Abstract

INDUSTRY NEWS

Nuvilex Reports Cannabinoid-Based Pancreatic Cancer Treatments to Be Developed by Its Subsidiary, Medical Marijuana Sciences, Inc.
Nuvilex, Inc. announced its subsidiary, Medical Marijuana Sciences, Inc., is planning to develop treatments for pancreatic cancer based on cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa. [Nuvilex, Inc.] Press Release

Sanofi New Drug Application for Lixisenatide Accepted for Review by FDA
Sanofi announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review a New Drug Application for lixisenatide, the first once-daily prandial GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Sanofi] Press Release

Queen’s Study Aims to Use Stem Cells to Help Save Sight of Diabetes Sufferers
Scientists at Queen’s University Belfast are hoping to develop a novel approach that could save the sight of millions of diabetes sufferers using adult stem cells. [Queen’s University Belfast] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

Expanding Public Access to the Results of Federally Funded Research
In a policy memorandum, Office of Science and Technology Policy Director John Holdren has directed Federal agencies with more than $100 million in R&D expenditures to develop plans to make the published results of federally funded research freely available to the public within one year of publication and requiring researchers to better account for and manage the digital data resulting from federally funded scientific research. [Office of Science and Technology Policy, The White House, United States] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Global Technology Community (GTC) Diabetes Summit 2013
April 29-30, 2013
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Researcher (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)

Postdoctoral Position – Diabetes Research (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic Beta-Cell Dysfunction (Weill Cornell Medical College)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreas Development (INSERM)

Postdoc Position – Beta Cell Signaling (The University of Southern Denmark)

Postdoctoral Position (Skirball Institute / NYU Medical Center)

PhD Studentship – Developmental Genes in Adult Pancreas Homeostasis & Energy Metabolism (Helmholtz Zentrum München)

Research Position – Diabetes Research (Johns Hopkins University)

Senior Scientist (Spiber Technologies AB)

Postdoctoral Position – Basic Diabetes Research (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Position – Mechano-Signaling in the Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer Progression (Fox Chase Cancer Center)


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