Volume 4.01 | Jan 15

Pancreatic Cell News 4.01 January 15, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
Next Steps in Potential Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes
There are currently two ways of generating endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), either generating the cells in vitro in culture or transplanting immature endocrine cell precursors into mice. Researchers looked at the differences and similarities between these two types of hESC-derived endocrine cell populations and primary human endocrine cells, with the longer-term goal of developing new stem cell therapies for diabetes. [Press release from the University of California, San Diego Health Sciences discussing online prepublication in Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Differentiation Doesn't Have to be Difficult - Get Easy, Standardized hPSC Differentiation
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

DIABETES

Thyroid Hormone Promotes Postnatal Rat Pancreatic β-Cell Development and Glucose-Responsive Insulin Secretion through MAFA
The authors discovered that postnatal rat β cells express thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and deiodinases in an age-dependent pattern as glucose responsiveness develops. [Diabetes] Abstract

Factors Expressed by Murine Embryonic Pancreatic Mesenchyme Enhance Generation of Insulin-Producing Cells from hESCs
Scientists identified a set of signaling factors expressed in mouse embryonic mesenchyme during the time when foregut and pancreatic progenitors are specified and tested their activities during in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). [Diabetes] Abstract

P2Y1 Receptor-Dependent Diacylglycerol Signaling Microdomains in β Cells Promote Insulin Secretion
Researchers explored plasma membrane diacylglycerol (DAG) dynamics in pancreatic β cells and determined whether DAG signaling is involved in secretagogue-induced pulsatile release of insulin. [FASEB J] Abstract

Epoxypukalide Induces Proliferation and Protects against Cytokine-Mediated Apoptosis in Primary Cultures of Pancreatic β-Cells
Investigators screened a collection of marine products for β-cell proliferation. One unique compound (epoxypukalide) showed capability to induce β-cell replication in the cell line INS1 832/13 and in primary rat cell cultures. [PLoS One] Full Article

RIP140 Mediates Hyperglycemia-Induced Glucotoxicity in β-Cells via the Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling Pathways
Scientists investigated the role of RIP140 in pancreatic β-cells under glucotoxic conditions. Murine insulinoma cell line MIN6 cells were transfected with RIP140 overexpression plasmid or RIP140 siRNA before exposure to glucose, then cells viability and cells in early apoptosis, intracellular free fatty acid and insulin secretion were measured. [Diabetes Res Clin Pract] Abstract


PANCREATIC CANCER

Cationic MicroRNA-Delivering Nanovectors with Bifunctional Peptides for Efficient Treatment of PANC-1 Xenograft Model
MicroRNA (miR)-34a-delivering therapeutic nanocomplexes with a tumor-targeting and -penetrating bifunctional CC9 peptide were proposed for efficient treatment of pancreatic cancers. In vitro study indicated that the nanoparticle-based miR-34a delivery systems could effectively facilitate cellular uptake and greatly up-regulate the mRNA level of miR-34a in PANC-1 cell lines. [Biomaterials] Abstract

Activation of TLR4 Is Required for the Synergistic Induction of Dual Oxidase 2 and Dual Oxidase A2 by IFN-γ and Lipopolysaccharide in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines
The authors previously demonstrated that dual oxidase 2 (Duox2) is regulated by IFN-γ-mediated Stat1 binding to the Duox2 promoter in pancreatic tumor lines. Because lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the development and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer in vivo following TLR4-related activation of NF-κB, they examined whether LPS, alone or combined with IFN-γ, regulated Duox2. [J Immunol] Abstract

Designing and Developing S100P Inhibitor 5-Methyl Cromolyn (C5OH) for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy
Researchers designed and synthesized analogs of cromolyn and analyzed their effectiveness compared to the parent molecule. An ELISA was used to confirm the binding of S100P with RAGE and to test the effectiveness of the different analogs. Analog C5OH blocked S100P binding as well as the increases in NFkappaB activity, cell growth and apoptosis normally caused by S100P. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

A Small-Molecule Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Investigators studied the effect and mechanism of 4-tert-butyl-2-((cyclohexylamino) methyl)-6-methylphenol on two pancreatic cancer cell lines, CFPAC-1 and BxPC-3. [Eur J Pharm Sci] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

New: Directed Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells

REVIEWS

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in 2012: Optimal Management of T2DM Remains Elusive
Despite the availability of an increasing number of treatment modalities for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), two fundamental therapeutic issues have yet to be addressed. [Nat Rev Endocrinol] Abstract
INDUSTRY NEWS

Tandem Diabetes Care Announces Partnership with JDRF to Develop a Novel Dual-Chamber Infusion Pump
Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc. announced a partnership with JDRF to develop a first-of-its-kind, dual-chamber infusion pump for the management of diabetes. The partnership agreement is designed to accelerate the development of a next-generation, fully automated artificial pancreas system using therapies in conjunction with insulin. [Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc.] Press Release

Oramed Pharmaceuticals Files Investigational New Drug Application with the FDA for Oral Insulin
Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc. announced that it has filed an Investigational New Drug application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to begin a Phase II clinical trial of its orally ingested insulin candidate, ORMD-0801. [Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc.] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Targeting Insulin Resistance for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: From Laboratory to the Clinic
April 23, 2013
New York, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Scientist or Engineer – hPSC Bioengineer (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic/Liver Cell Differentiation in Development and Cancer (de Duve Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Diabetes and Beta-Cell Regeneration in Mice (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Researcher (The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pancreatic Beta Cell Biology (CeMM, Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences)

PhD Studentship – Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Cell Therapy of Diabetes (IDIBELL and University of Barcelona)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Differentiation in Development and Cancer(de Duve Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Diabetes Research (Lund University)


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