Volume 3.46 | Nov 20

Pancreatic Cell News 3.46 November 20, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
USP18 Is a Key Regulator of the Interferon-Driven Gene Network Modulating Pancreatic Beta Cell Inflammation and Apoptosis
Researchers analyzed the role of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) on interferon (IFN)-induced pancreatic beta cell inflammation and apoptosis. Their findings indicated that USP18 inhibition induces inflammation by increasing the signal transducer and activator of transcription factor signaling and exacerbates IFN-induced beta cell apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway of cell death. [Cell Death Dis] Abstract | Full Article

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

DIABETES

Metabolomic Analysis of Pancreatic Beta Cells following Exposure to High Glucose
Chronic exposure to hyperglycemic conditions has been shown to have detrimental effects on beta cell function. The resulting glucotoxicity is a contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes. The authors combined a metabolomics approach with functional assays to gain insight into the mechanism by which glucotoxicity exerts its effects. [Biochim Biophys Acta] Abstract

Adult Pancreas Side Population Cells Expand after β Cell Injury and Are a Source of Insulin-Secreting Cells
In adult tissues the ‘side population’ (SP) of cells that effluxes the DNA binding dye Hoechst 33342 through ATP-binding cassette transporters has stem cell properties. Investigators hypothesized that the SP would expand in response to β cell injury and give rise to functional β cells. SP cells were flow sorted from dissociated pancreas cells of adult mice, analyzed for phenotype and cultured with growth promoting and differentiation factors before analysis for hormone expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. [PLoS OneFull Article | Press Release

The Roles of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 in the Regulation of Insulin and Somatostatin Release from Pancreatic Islets
Scientists investigated the role of Kv2 channels in pancreatic islets using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. Pancreatic β-cells from Kv2.1-/- mice possess reduced Kv current and display greater glucose-stimulated insulin secretion relative to wild-type β-cells. [J Pharmacol Exp Ther]
Abstract | Full Article

Involvement of the Calcium-Responsive Transactivator (CREST) in High Glucose Induced Beta-Cell Apoptosis
The calcium-regulated transcription co-activator CREST was expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. CREST expression was significantly increased in pancreatic islets isolated from hyperglycemic Goto-Kakizaki rats as compared to normoglycemic Wistar controls. [J Endocrinol] Abstract

PANCREATIC CANCER

Chronic Nicotine Inhibits the Therapeutic Effects of Gemcitabine on Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and in Mouse Xenografts
The authors hypothesized that chronic exposure to low dose nicotine reduces the responsiveness of pancreatic cancer to the leading therapeutic for this cancer, gemcitabine. The effects of chronic nicotine on two pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro and in a xenograft model were assessed by immunoassays, Western blots and cell proliferation assays. [Eur J Cancer] Abstract

Bile Acids Induce Pancreatic Acinar Cell Injury and Pancreatitis by Activating Calcineurin
Researchers demonstrated that acinar cell calcineurin (Cn) is activated in response to Ca2+ generated by bile acid exposure, bile acid-induced pancreatic injury is dependent on Cn activation, and Cn inhibitors may provide an adjunctive therapy for biliary pancreatitis. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Transcriptional Activation of Reg2 and Reg3β Genes by Glucocorticoids and Interleukin-6 in Pancreatic Acinar and Islet Cells
To explore transcriptional control, scientists transfected luciferase reporter genes driven by Reg promoters into acinar AR42J and islet MIN6 cells. [Mol Cell Endocrinol] Abstract

Establishment and Characterization of a Highly Tumorigenic and Cancer Stem Cell Enriched Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line as a Well Defined Model System
Scientists report the isolation of a highly tumorigenic primary pancreatic cancer cell line, called JoPaca-1 and its detailed characterization at multiple levels. Implantation of as few as 100 JoPaca-1 cells into immunodeficient mice gave rise to tumors that were histologically very similar to the primary tumor. [PLoS One] Full Article

(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Inhibits Invasion by Inducing the Expression of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein in AsPC‑1 Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells through the Modulation of Histone Deacetylase Activity
Investigators aimed to assess whether (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate via epigenetic modifications, regulates Raf kinase inhibitor protein expression and invasive metastatic activity in AsPC-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

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SCIENCE NEWS
ABRAXANE® Demonstrates Statistically Significant Improvement in Overall Survival for Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer in Phase III Study
Celgene International Sàrl announced that its phase III study of ABRAXANE® (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) in combination with gemcitabine in treatment-naïve patients with advanced pancreatic cancer met its primary endpoint of overall survival. [Press release from Celgene International Sàrl discussing research to be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s (ASCO) 2013 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, San Francisco] Press Release
INDUSTRY NEWS

Stem Cell Clinical Trials to Tackle Diabetes
NUI Galway has been awarded a major new €6 million European project, designed to address complications associated with diabetes. The research project will examine the ability of stem cells to safely control glucose levels and alleviate the damage caused by six different diabetic complications. [National University of Ireland, Galway] Press Release

Clovis Oncology Announces Negative Outcome of CO-101 in Pivotal LEAP Pancreatic Cancer Study
Clovis Oncology, Inc. announced the results from its LEAP (Low hENT1 and Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas) study of CO-101 versus gemcitabine in metastatic pancreatic cancer. There was no difference in overall survival between the two arms in either the primary analysis of the hENT1-low patient population, or in the overall intent-to-treat population. [Clovis Oncology, Inc.] Press Release

NewLink Genetics Receives European Orphan Designation for Algenpantucel-L Immunotherapy to Treat Pancreatic Cancer
NewLink Genetics Corporation announced that the European Commission (EC) has designated HyperAcute-Pancreas® Immunotherapy (algenpantucel-L) as an orphan medicinal product under Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1999 on Orphan Medicinal Products. Algenpantucel-L is an “off-the-shelf” product candidate currently being studied in Immunotherapy Pancreas Resected Survival Study which is being performed under a Special Protocol Assessment with the United States Food and Drug Administration. [NewLink Genetics Corporation] Press Release

Intarcia Therapeutics Secures Landmark $210 Million Financing to Fund Its Global Phase III Program for ITCA 650 in Type 2 Diabetes

Intarcia Therapeutics, Inc. announced the simultaneous completion of two financings with total proceeds of $210 million, the largest sum to be raised by a private biotechnology company in at least 25 years. As a result, Intarcia has retained full strategic and financial control of its lead product candidate ITCA 650, which, if approved, would be the first and only once-yearly, injection-free glucagon-like peptide-1 therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. [Intarcia Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW EiD – Excellence in Diabetes 2013
Istanbul, Turkey
February 6-9, 2013


Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Quality Scientist (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Endothelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist or Engineer – hPSC Bioengineer (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Beta Cell Biology and Translational Research (University of California, Los Angeles)

Postdoctoral Position – Signaling Pathways Pancreatic Beta-Cells (CNRS – Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Postdoctoral Position – Beta Cell Biology (Umea Center for Molecular Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Stem Cells (Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Postdoctoral Position – Pancreatic Cancer Research (University of Notre Dame, Department of Biological Sciences)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Beta-Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish (Karolinska Institute, Cell and Molecular Biology)


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