Volume 3.39 | Oct 2

Pancreatic Cell News 3.39 October 2, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs 
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TOP STORY
Liver Cells, Insulin-Producing Cells, Thymus Tissue Can Be Grown in Lymph Nodes
Researchers showed for the first time that liver cells, thymus tissue and insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells, in an animal model, can thrive in lymph nodes despite being displaced from their natural sites. [Press release from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discussing online prepublication in Nature Biotechnology] Press Release | Abstract

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

DIABETES

Targeting VEGF-B as a Novel Treatment for Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
Scientists showed that decreased vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) signaling in rodent models of type 2 diabetes restores insulin sensitivity and improves glucose tolerance. Pharmacological inhibition of VEGF-B signaling by antibody administration to db/db mice enhanced glucose tolerance, preserved pancreatic islet architecture, improved ß-cell function and ameliorated dyslipidemia, key elements of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

Inhibition of Activin/Nodal Signaling Is Necessary for Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Scientists used defined culture media to identify signaling pathways controlling the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic or hepatic progenitors. The study revealed that activin/TGF-β signaling blocks pancreatic specification induced by retinoic acid while promoting hepatic specification in combination with bone morphogenetic protein and fibroblast growth factor. [Diabetologia] Abstract

Deficiency in the Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 Renders Pancreatic β-Cells Vulnerable to Arsenic-Induced Cell Damage
Investigators found that MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with stable knockdown of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by lentiviral shRNA and pancreatic islets isolated from Nrf2-knockout mice exhibited reduced expression of several antioxidant and detoxification enzymes in response to acute inorganic arsenite exposure. [Toxicol Appl Pharmacol] Abstract

Activation of Transmembrane Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β Cells
Researchers demonstrated that the TGR5 expressed in the pancreatic β cells regulates insulin secretion and highlights the importance of ongoing therapeutic strategies targeting TGR5 in the control of glucose homeostasis. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract


PANCREATIC CANCER

Novel Involvement of Leukotriene B4 Receptor 2 through ERK Activation by PP2A Down-Regulation in Leukotriene B4-Induced Keratin Phosphorylation and Reorganization of Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Results suggested that leukotriene B4 receptor 2 is involved in leukotriene B4-induced phosphorylation and reorganization through ERK activation by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) downregulation, leading to increased migration of PANC-1 cells. [Biochim Biophys Acta] Abstract

S100P Is a Metastasis-Associated Gene that Facilitates Transendothelial Migration of Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Investigators showed that S100P increases the transendothelial migration of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer cells in vitro, which was also confirmed in vivo experiments using a zebrafish embryo model. Therefore, S100P facilitates cancer cell intravasation/extravasation, which are critical steps in the hematogenous dissemination of pancreatic cancer cells. [Clin Exp Metastasis] Abstract

Involvement of Annexin A8 in the Properties of Pancreatic Cancer
Researchers investigated the molecular mechanism of expression of Annexin A8 in cancer cells and its functional role in pancreatic cancer cells. [Mol Carcinog] Abstract

Mechanistic Studies of Gemcitabine-Loaded Nanoplatforms in Resistant Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Gemcitabine was encapsulated in two types of commonly used nanovectors and their physico-chemical parameters were assessed in vitro. Their mechanisms of action in human pancreatic cells were compared with those of the free drug, and with each other’s, using cytotoxity, apoptosis and ultrastructural analyses. [BMC Cancer] Abstract | Full Article

Synergistic Effects of Photodynamic Therapy with HPPH and Gemcitabine in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a potential treatment for pancreatic cancer. The authors investigated the efficacy of PDT with 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH) and gemcitabine in inducing cell death in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines. [Lasers Surg Med] Abstract


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REVIEWS

Therapeutic Potential of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide versus PACAP in Diabetes
Therapeutic approaches designed to protect islet cells from apoptosis could significantly improve the management of type 2 diabetes, because of its potential to reverse diabetes not just ameliorate glycemia. Therefore, an ideal beta cell preserving agent is expected to protect beta cells from apoptosis and stimulate postprandial insulin secretion along with increasing beta cell replication and/or islet neogenesis. [J Mol Endocrinol] Abstract | Full Article

Treatment Options for Diabetes: Potential Role of Stem Cells
The literature suggests that embryonic and adult stem cells are promising alternatives in long-term treatment of diabetes. However, any successful strategy should address both the need for β-cell replacement and controlling the autoimmune response to cells that express insulin. This review discusses the current knowledge of options and the potential of stem cell transplantation in diabetes treatment. [Diabetes Res Clin Pract] Abstract

INDUSTRY NEWS

Novartis Announces Two CHMP Positive Opinions for New Indications of Galvus® and Eucreas® Combined with Other Diabetes Treatments
Novartis announced that the European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has issued two positive opinions for new indications for the use of Galvus® and Eucreas® in combination with other treatments for type 2 diabetes patients. [Novartis AG] Press Release

Honorary Fellowship in the American College of Surgeons Is Awarded to Five Prominent Surgeons
Honorary Fellowship in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) was awarded to five prominent surgeons from Japan, the Philippines, Mexico, England, and Belgium during Convocation ceremonies that preceded the official opening of the 2012 ACS Annual Clinical Congress. [American College of Surgeons]
Press Release


Whitehead Members to Help Establish International Stem Cell Research Center

Three Members of the Whitehead Institute faculty are poised to play significant roles in the establishment of a new stem cell research center based at Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology in suburban Moscow. [Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

Bucking European Trend, Swedish Government Plans Major Science Investment
The Swedish government has proposed to raise its spending on research and innovation significantly. A new plan calls for adding $609 million to the annual budget by 2016, a 13.2% increase. The hike would be implemented in steps, starting with $264 million in 2013. [Swedish Education and Research Minister, Sweden] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Diabetes, Cardiovascular & Renal Complications
November 28-29, 2012
London, United Kingdom


Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Research Technologist – Media Development (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Research and Development (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Quality Control Operations Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Manager – Hematopoietic (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Therapeutics (Massachusetts General Hospital)

Postdoctoral Position – Beta Cell Biology and Translational Research (University of California, Los Angeles)


Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Therapeutics in Pancreatic Cancer (Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Diabetes Research (Monash University)

Postdoctoral Position – Type 1 Diabetes Research (Sanford Health/University of South Dakota)


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