Volume 2.20 | May 24

Pancreatic Cell News 2.20, May 24, 2011
     In this issue: Science News | Current Publications | Industry News | Policy News | Events
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TOP STORY

Impaired Insulin Secretion and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Cholecystokinin-Deficient Mice
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in response to lipid intake and stimulates insulin secretion. Researchers hypothesized that CCK deficiency would alter the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. [Diabetes]

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SCIENCE NEWS

Predicting the Fate of Personalized Cells Next Step Towards New Therapies, Penn Study Suggests
Researchers looked at progenitors and found a way to potentially predict their fate. They base this on how histones are marked by other proteins. [Press release from the University of Pennsylvania discussing online prepublication in Science]

Lowering Fat Intake Might Stave Off Diabetes Even Without Weight Loss
Small differences in diet – even without weight loss – can significantly affect risk for diabetes, according to research. [Press release from the University of Alabama at Birmingham discussing online prepublication in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition]

Tale of Two Mice Pinpoints Insulin Resistance Factor
Joslin researchers have now identified an enzyme called PKC-delta as an important molecular modifier for development of insulin resistance, diabetes and fatty liver in mice. [Press release from the Joslin Diabetes Center discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation]

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)

DIABETES

PKCδ Regulates Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and Hepatosteatosis in Mice and Humans
Changes in the expression and regulation of PKCδ between strains of mice and in obese humans play an important role in the genetic risk of hepatic insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hepatosteatosis; and thus PKCδ may be a potential target in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. [J Clin Invest]

Farnesoid X Receptor Deficiency Improves Glucose Homeostasis in Mouse Models of Obesity
Here, researchers evaluate the consequences of farnesoid X receptor deficiency on body weight development, lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance in murine models of genetic and diet-induced obesity. [Diabetes]

Suppression of FoxO1 Activity by Long Chain Fatty Acyl Analogs
Suppression of FoxO1 activity by MEDICA analogs may partly account for their antidiabetic anti-inflammatory efficacy. FoxO1 suppression by long-chain fatty acyl analogs may provide a molecular rational for the beneficial efficacy of carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets in treating diabetes. [Diabetes]

Dietary Macronutrient Composition Affects β Cell Responsiveness but Not Insulin Sensitivity
The objective was to evaluate the contribution of tightly controlled diets differing in carbohydrate and fat content for 8 wk to insulin sensitivity and β cell responsiveness and whether effects of diet would vary with race, free-living diet, or insulin response. [Am J Clin Nutr]

Ceramide Synthase 4 and De Novo Production of Ceramides with Specific N-Acyl Chain Lengths are Involved in Gluco-Lipotoxicity-Induced Apoptosis of INS-1 β-Cells
Collectively, the results suggest that gluco-lipotoxicity induced β-cell apoptosis through a dual mechanism involving the de novo ceramide biosynthesis and the formation of ceramides with specific N-acyl chain lengths rather than an overall increase of ceramide content. [Biochem J]

MCP-1 Upregulates Amylin Expression in Murine Pancreatic β Cells through ERK/JNK-AP1 and NF-κB Related Signaling Pathways Independent of CCR2
Researchers investigated the effect of MCP-1 on amylin expression and the underlying mechanisms with murine pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 and pancreatic islets. [PLoS ONE]

Runx2 Regulates the Gene Network Associated with Insulin Signaling and Energy Homeostasis
The results demonstrate that Runx2 is central for transduction and execution of the insulin regulatory signal. [Cells Tissues Organs]

Improving the Efficacy of Type 1 Diabetes Therapy by Transplantation of Immunoisolated Insulin-Producing Cells
The results provide further evidence supporting the use of allogeneic or xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cells obtained from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood for treating type 1 diabetes. [Hum Cell]

PANCREATIC CANCER

Chromatin “Prepattern” and Histone Modifiers in a Fate Choice for Liver and Pancreas
Researchers found that the liver and pancreas elements have distinct chromatin patterns. Furthermore, the histone acetyltransferase P300, recruited via bone morphogenetic protein signaling, and the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 have modulatory roles in the fate choice. [Science]

STAT3 Plays a Critical Role in KRAS-Induced Pancreatic Tumorigenesis
Here, researchers sought to define the mechanisms of STAT3 activation and its functional importance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas pathogenesis. [Cancer Res]

Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish Families with Breast and Pancreatic Cancer
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are observed with nearly equal distribution in Ashkenazi Jewish breast-pancreas cancer families, suggesting that both genes are associated with pancreatic cancer risk. [Cancer]

Baicalein, a Component of Scutellaria baicalensis, Induces Apoptosis by Mcl-1 Down-Regulation in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) and SB-derived polyphenols possess anti-proliferative activities in several cancers, including pancreatic cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms have not been fully defined. SB extract and SB-derived polyphenols (wogonin, baicalin, and baicalein) were used to determine their anti-proliferative mechanisms. [Biochim Biophys Acta]

Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 6 Expression in Pancreatic Cancer is an Independent Prognostic Factor Indicating Better Overall Survival
The family of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) is responsible for the altered glycosylation in cancer. The purpose of the study was to investigate the clinical significance of two isoforms, GalNAc-T6 and -T3, and their correlation with the prognosis of pancreatic cancer. [Br J Cancer]

Evidence of an Intracellular Angiotensin-Generating System and Non-AT1, Non-AT2 Binding Site in a Human Pancreatic Cell Line
The objective was to assess the presence of a local angiotensin-generating systems and its participation in tumor growth in the human pancreatic cancer derived cell line Capan-1. [Pancreas]

INDUSTRY NEWS

Nuvilex, Inc. in Advanced-Stage Discussions to Acquire Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Technology
Nuvilex, Inc. announces discussions are at an advanced stage with one of the world’s most experienced cell therapy companies to acquire their pancreatic cancer treatment technology. [Nuvilex, Inc. Press Release]

NIH Head Applauds Diabetes Prevention Program
Testifying before a U.S. Senate appropriations sub-committee last week, the director of the National Institutes of Health highlighted the success of the Diabetes Prevention Program, a landmark clinical trial on preventing type 2 diabetes in which Joslin has been a leader. [Joslin Diabetes Center Press Release]

Cellceutix CEO States – Full Speed Ahead
Cellceutix Corporation announced that in light of recent exceptional preclinical results regarding Kevetrin™, the Company believes it would be in its shareholders’ best interest to test Kevetrin™ against a very aggressive cancer that would be more beneficial to patients and generate more useful data for its IND filing. [Cellceutix Corporation Press Release]

Researchers from Landmark CGM Trials Receive “Excellence in Clinical Research Award” at JDRF’s 2011 Annual Conference
Mary Tyler Moore, international chairman of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), and her husband, S. Robert Levine, M.D., presented the ninth annual Mary Tyler Moore and S. Robert Levine Excellence in Clinical Research Award to the JDRF Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group, a multi-center team of scientists, at JDRF’s Annual Conference in Denver, Colorado. [Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Press Release]

Researchers Honored for Scientific Excellence at JDRF’s 2011 Annual Conference
Three scientists who have made exceptional contributions to diabetes research were recognized by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) with two prestigious awards: the David Rumbough Award for Scientific Excellence and the Gerold & Kayla Grodsky Basic Research Scientist Award. [Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Press Release]

POLICY NEWS

FDA Approves Sutent for Rare Type of Pancreatic Cancer
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Sutent (sunitinib) to treat patients with progressive neuroendocrine cancerous tumors located
in the pancreas that cannot be removed by surgery or that have spread to other parts of the body (metastatic). [Food and Drug Administration, United States]

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)
 
Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

National Health Service (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW American Association for Cancer Research – Tumor Microenvironment Complexity: Emerging Roles in Cancer Therapy 
November 3-6, 2011 
Orlando, United States


Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the pancreatic cell community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Position (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Research Fellowship in Diabetes/Cardiovascular Disease (Children’s Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Bioinformatics/Computational Biology – Diabetes (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Fellow with Expertise in Endocrinology and Mouse Models of Disease (National Spanish Research Council – CSIC)


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