Volume 1.29 | Nov 9

Pancreatic Cell News 1.29, November 9, 2010.

TOP STORY 

IL-1Beta Produced in Response to Islet Autoantigen Presentation Differentiates T-Helper 17 Cells at the Expense of Regulatory T Cells: Implications for the Timing of Tolerizing Immunotherapy  ShareThis
IL-1beta, generated by islet-autoreactive cells in MHC-susceptible mice, accelerates diabetes by differentiating Th17 at the expense of regulatory T Cells. Tolerizing dendritic cell-therapies can regulate islet autoantigen priming and prevent diabetes, but progression past the IL-1beta/IL-17 checkpoint signals the need for other strategies. [Diabetes]

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SCIENCE NEWS

Recombination Hotspot Stacks the DNA Deck in Finding a New Diabetes Susceptibility Gene
Scientists have identified a novel gene associated with diabetes in mice that is revealing new clues about genomic mechanisms that could underlie type 1 diabetes susceptibility. [Press release from EurekAlert! discussing online prepublication in Genome Research]
 
Gefitinib May Have Chemopreventive Benefits in Pancreatic Cancer
Gefitinib may be a promising chemoprevention agent for pancreatic cancer. Strategies to combat pancreatic cancer have focused on earlier and earlier treatments, and this is the first time that a chemoprevention strategy has been tried. [Press release from the American Association for Cancer Research discussing online prepublication in Cancer Prevention Research]

Team Discovers Promising Target for New Pancreatic Cancer Treatments
The KRAS gene, which is mutated in virtually all pancreatic cancers, triggers cancer cell growth in numerous ways through multiple cell signaling pathways, and scientists have had difficulty determining which one will be the most promising to block. Researchers have now narrowed the focus of this scientific quest to a protein called RGL2. [Press release from the University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Biological Chemistry]

Italy Carries Out First Hi-Tech Pancreas Transplant
Italian doctors have carried out the world’s first robotically-assisted pancreatic transplant in an operation that could help diabetes sufferers everywhere. [Associated Free Press]

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)

DIABETES

A Recombination Hotspot Leads to Sequence Variability within a Novel Gene (AK005651) And Contributes to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility
Researchers describe the positional cloning of a type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility locus, Idd11 , located on mouse chromosome 4. Sequence analysis of a series of congenic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strains over a critical 6.9-kb interval in these mice and in 25 inbred strains identified several haplotypes, including a unique NOD haplotype, associated with varying levels of T1D susceptibility. [Genome Res]
 
Cyclic GMP Kinase I Modulates Glucagon Release from Pancreatic Alpha Cells
Researchers propose that cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I modulates glucagon release by suppression of cytosolic Ca2+ in alpha cells. [Diabetes]

Beta Cell Function During Rapamycin Monotherapy in Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes
Researchers sought to determine whether immunosuppression therapy can reinstate beta cell function in patients with long-term type 1 diabetes. [Diabetologia]

Adenylyl Cyclase 8 Is Central to Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Signaling and Effects of Chronically Elevated Glucose in Rat and Human Pancreatic Beta Cells
Glucose and incretins regulate beta cell function, gene expression and insulin exocytosis via calcium and cAMP. Prolonged exposure to elevated glucose disturbs calcium homeostasis, but little is known about cAMP signaling. Researchers therefore investigated long-term effects of glucose on this pathway with special regard to the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1. [Diabetologia]

Associations Between the Intake of Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Measures of Insulin Sensitivity and Beta Cell Function
In this cross-sectional study, caffeinated coffee was positively related to insulin sensitivity and decaffeinated coffee was favorably related to measures of beta cell function. These results provide pathophysiological insight as to how coffee could impact the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Diabetologia]
 
BK Channels Affect Glucose Homeostasis and Cell Viability of Murine Pancreatic Beta Cells
Ablation or inhibition of BK channels impairs glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion by interfering with beta cell stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition, BK channels are part of a defense mechanism against apoptosis and oxidative stress. [Diabetologia]
 
STAT1 Is a Master Regulator of Pancreatic Beta Cells Apoptosis and Islet Inflammation
The present study elucidates the transcriptional networks through which the IFN-gamma/STAT1/IRF-1 axis controls beta cell function/differentiation, demise and islet inflammation. [J Biol Chem]

PANCREATIC CANCER

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Gefitinib Prevents the Progression of Pancreatic Lesions to Carcinoma in a Conditional LSL-KrasG12D/+ Transgenic Mouse Model
The present study highlights the promise of chemoprevention and the potential usefulness of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer. [Cancer Prev Res]

Aberrant Overexpression of the Rgl2 Ral Small GTPase-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Growth Through Ral-Dependent and Ral-Independent Mechanisms
Observations support nonredundant roles for RalGEFs in Ras-mediated oncogenesis and a key role for Rgl2 in Ral activation and Ral-independent pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth. [J Biol Chem]

Pancreatic Bicarbonate Secretion: A Case for Two Proton Pumps
Researchers show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H+-K+-ATPases. [J Biol Chem]

PHD3 Regulates Differentiation, Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Pancreatic Cancer
Results indicate essential functions of prolyl hydroxylase-3 (PHD3) in tumor growth, apoptosis and angiogenesis and through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent and HIF-1-independent pathways. [Br J Cancer]

INDUSTRY NEWS

Arena Pharmaceuticals Provides Update on GPR119 Portfolio for Type 2 Diabetes
Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that, following the completion of a Phase I clinical trial program for APD597 (JNJ-38431055) under its collaboration with Arena, Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., has decided not to advance APD597 and has notified Arena that it is terminating the collaboration, effective December 28, 2010. [Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Press Release]
 
Texas Center for Cancer Nanomedicine Targets Two Tough Cancers
A $16-million, five-year grant by the National Cancer Institute’s nanomedicine initiative blends the expertise of five research institutions to focus an array of innovative nanotechnologies on improving the outcome of patients with ovarian or pancreatic cancers. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Press Release]
 
Million-Dollar Gift Boosts Joslin Treatment for Children with Diabetes
Joslin Diabetes Center has received a $1 million gift that will broaden full access to pediatric clinical services for children with diabetes and their families. Given by the Thomas J. Beatson, Jr. Foundation, the donation will offer major support for the Joslin Pediatric, Adolescent and Young Adult Clinic’s care ambassador program. [Joslin Diabetes Center Press Release]
 
Jefferson Researchers Receive W.W. Smith Charitable Trust
Researchers at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University have been awarded a W.W. Smith Charitable Trust medical research grant. This one-year grant awards $100,000 to their group to help support their innovative cancer research, and one of the questions they will address is why African-Americans respond poorly to common chemotherapeutic agents used to treat pancreatic cancer. Another question this grant will address is what genes in cancer cells are regulated upon stressful conditions such as chemotherapeutic treatments. [EurekAlert!]

Finding the Missing Markers: University of Utah Team Wins Federal Grant to Develop Pancreatic Cancer Testing Technology
Building on advances made in high-speed, high-sensitivity magnetic sensing, a team of University of Utah researchers has been awarded a five-year, $2.3 million federal grant to create a nanotechnology-based platform for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. [Innovation Utah Press Release]
 
KOMBIGLYZE™ XR (Saxagliptin and Metformin HCl Extended-Release) Tablets Approved in the U.S. for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and AstraZeneca announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved KOMBIGLYZE™ XR for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Press Release]

POLICY NEWS

NICE Consults on Draft Quality Standards for Diabetes and Glaucoma
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has published for public consultation its draft quality standards for the clinical management of type 1 and 2 diabetes in adults and for the care of people with glaucoma. [National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, United Kingdom]

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EVENTS (Listed by Date)

10th Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society
November 11-13, 2010
Bethesda, United States

Select Biosciences 2nd International Forum on Stem Cells (2010 IFSC)
November 12-13, 2010
Tianjin, China

Australasian Pancreatic Club Annual Meeting
November 15-16, 2010
Melbourne, Australia

Pharmacology in Stem Cells Research and Regenerative Medicine
December 17, 2010
London, United Kingdom

Type 2 Diabetes, Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Dysfunction
January 12-17, 2011
Dillon, United States

Keystone Symposia: Obesity
January 12-17, 2011
Keystone, United States

2011 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium
January 20-22, 2011
San Francisco, United States

Epithelial Plasticity and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition
January 21-26, 2011
Vancouver, Canada

5th Annual Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine World Congress
January 24-25, 2011
San Diego, United States

Phacilitate 7th Annual Cell & Gene Therapy Forum 2011
January 24-26, 2011
Washington, DC, United States

Early Development for Innovative Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome Therapeutics Conference
January 26-27, 2011
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Joint Conference of the International Association of Pancreatology and the Indian Pancreas Club
February 10-13, 2011
Maradu, India

United Kingdom National Stem Cell Network 2011 Annual Scientific Conference
March 30-April 1, 2011
York, United Kingdom

American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 102nd Annual Meeting 2011
April 2-6, 2011
Orlando, United States

Visit our events page to stay up to date with the latest events in the cell, gene and immunotherapy community.

 

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