Volume 1.28 | Nov 2

Pancreatic Cell News 1.28, November 2, 2010.

TOP STORY 

Genetic Study Reveals Large Window of Opportunity for the Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer  ShareThis
Using whole genome sequencing data generated from the cancer tissues of seven patients who underwent a rapid autopsy, researchers found that it takes at least a decade after the first cancer-causing mutation occurs in a normal cell in the pancreas until the development of a full-fledged cancer cell. [Press release from Johns Hopkins University discussing online prepublication in Nature]

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SPECIAL FEATURES 

Professor Clyde Barker Wins 2010 Medawar Prize for Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation
The Transplantation Society is delighted to announce Professor Clyde Barker as the one who exemplifies all of the requirements for the Medawar Prize. [The Transplantation Society Press Release]
 
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SCIENCE NEWS

Forces for Cancer Spread: Genomic Instability and Evolutionary Selection
Researchers have uncovered evolution in action in cancer cells. They show the forces of evolution in pancreatic tumors mean that not only is cancer genetically different between different patients, but each new focus of cancer spread within a patient has acquired distinct mutations. [Press release from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute discussing online prepublication in Nature]
 
NIH Researchers Identify Genetic Elements Influencing the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
A team of researchers has captured the most comprehensive snapshot to date of DNA regions that regulate genes in human pancreatic islet cells, a subset of which produces insulin. The study highlights the importance of genome regulatory sequences in human health and disease, particularly type 2 diabetes. [Press release from the National Institutes of Health discussing online prepublication in Cell Metabolism]
 
Insulin-Creating Cell Research May Lead to Better Diabetes Treatment
By using radioactive carbon-14, researchers have determined that the number of beta cells remains static after age 30. [Press release from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism]
 
The Cell Dance That Can Lead to Type 1 Diabetes
Scientists have moved a step closer to understanding how immune cells come together in a perilous dance that leads to Type 1 diabetes. They have identified two chromosomal regions in mice that control the ability of beta cell reactive B cells to interact with T cells, and determine whether or not Type 1 diabetes develops. [Press release from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research discussing online prepublication in the European Journal of Immunology]
 
Glucosamine Causes the Death of Pancreatic Cells
High doses or prolonged use of glucosamine causes the death of pancreatic cells and could increase the risk of developing diabetes, according to a team of researchers at Université Laval’s Faculty of Pharmacy. [Press release from EurekAlert! discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Endocrinology]
 
Targeted Radiation Therapy May Slow Pancreatic Cancer Progression
For pancreatic cancer patients unable to undergo surgery, a highly targeted cancer radiation therapy may help slow cancer progression and lessen disease symptoms. [Press release from Henry Ford Hospital discussing research presented at the 52nd Annual American Society for Radiation Oncology Meeting]

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CURRENT PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by Impact Factor of the Journal)

DIABETES

Global Epigenomic Analysis of Primary Human Pancreatic Islets Provides Insights into Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci
Findings present a global snapshot of the human islet epigenome and should provide functional context for noncoding variants emerging from genetic studies of type 2 diabetes and other islet disorders. [Cell Metab]
 
Congenital Hyperinsulinism and Glucose Hypersensitivity in Homozygous and Heterozygous Carriers of Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) Mutation V290M Mutation: KATP Channel Inactivation Mechanism and Clinical Management
The ATP-sensitive K+-channel (KATP ) controls insulin secretion from the islet. Gain- or loss-of-function mutations in channel subunits underlie human neonatal diabetes mellitus and congenital hyperinsulinism (HI), respectively. In this study researchers sought to identify the mechanistic basis of KATP-induced HI in two probands, and characterize the clinical course. [Diabetes]
 
mt-Nd2a Modifies Resistance Against Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice at the Level of the Pancreatic Beta Cell
Researchers investigated whether a single nucleotide polymorphism in the mitochondrial gene for NADH dehydrogenase 2 (mt-ND2) can modulate susceptibility to type 1 diabetes susceptibility in NOD mice. [Diabetes]
 
Disruption of HGF/c-met Signaling Enhances Pancreatic Beta Cell Death and Accelerates the Onset of Diabetes
Results show that HGF/c-met is critical for beta cell survival by attenuating NFkB signaling and suggest that activation of the HGF/c-met signaling pathway represents a novel strategy for enhancing beta cell protection. [Diabetes]
 
Beta Cell Dysfunctional ERAD/Ubiquitin/Proteasome System in Type 2 Diabetes Mediated by IAPP-Induced UCH-L1 Deficiency
Results indicate that defective protein degradation in beta cells in type 2 diabetes can, at least in part, be attributed to misfolded human-islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) leading to UCH-L1 deficiency, which in turn further compromises beta cell viability. [Diabetes]
 
Exendin-4 Suppresses Src Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Diabetic GK Rat Islets in an Epac-Dependent Manner
Exendin-4 decreases endogenous reactive oxygen species production and increases ATP production in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets through suppression of Src activation, dependently on Epac. [Diabetes]
 
Significant Human Beta Cell Turnover Is Limited to the First Three Decades of Life as Determined by In Vivo Thymidine Analog Incorporation and Radiocarbon Dating
In two subjects less than 20 years of age, 1-2% of the beta cell nuclei costained for bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)/iododeoxyuridine (IdU). No beta cell nuclei costained in the eight patients more than 30 years old. Consistent with the BrdU/IdU turnover data, beta cell DNA carbon-14 content indicated that the “birth date” of cells occurred within the subject’s first 30 years of life. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab]
 
Enhanced Responsiveness to T-Cell Help Causes Loss of B-Lymphocyte Tolerance to a Beta Cell Neo-Self-Antigen in Type 1 Diabetes Prone NOD Mice
To shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown in B-lymphocyte self-tolerance to beta cell antigens, researchers utilized a model whereby IgHEL-transgenic (Tg) B-lymphocytes specific for hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) were allowed to develop in or were transferred into insHEL-Tg mice, in which HEL expression is restricted to beta cells. [Eur J Immunol]
 
Hexosamines Stimulate Apoptosis by Altering Sirt1 Action and Levelsin Rodent Pancreatic Beta Cells
Findings indicate that reduction of Sirt1 levels by hexosamines contributes to beta cell apoptosis. Methods to increase Sirt1 levels or activity could thus prevent the decrease in beta cell mass, notably that observed in type 2 diabetes. [J Endocrinol]

PANCREATIC CANCER

Distant Metastasis Occurs Late During the Genetic Evolution of Pancreatic Cancer
A quantitative analysis of the timing of the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer was performed, indicating at least a decade between the occurrence of the initiating mutation and the birth of the parental, non-metastatic founder cell. [Nature]
 
The Patterns and Dynamics of Genomic Instability in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer
Researchers found evidence that there is genetic heterogeneity among metastasis-initiating cells, that seeding metastasis may require driver mutations beyond those required for primary tumors, and that phylogenetic trees across metastases show organ-specific branches. These data attest to the richness of genetic variation in cancer, brought about by the tandem forces of genomic instability and evolutionary selection. [Nature]
 
Nuclear Receptor COUP-TFII Controls Pancreatic Islet Tumor Angiogenesis by Regulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Signaling
Researchers used the prototypical RIP-Tag model of multistage pancreatic islet tumorigenesis to show that the nuclear receptor COUP-TFII is essential to regulate the balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules that influence the angiogenic switch in cancer. [Cancer Res]


INDUSTRY NEWS

New Nanoparticle Research Targets Head and Neck, Pancreatic Cancers
Researchers at Emory University and the Georgia Institute of Technology will join forces against head and neck cancers and pancreatic cancer using two grants from the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Nanotechnology Platform Partnerships program. [Emory University Press Release]
 
Sirona Biochem Closes Over-Subscribed Non-Brokered Private Placement
Sirona Biochem Corporation announced that it has closed an over-subscribed non-brokered private placement for total gross proceeds of CDN$1,049,000. [Sirona Biochem Corporation Press Release]
 
BioCancell Announces Success in Phase I/IIa Pancreatic Cancer Clinical Trial
BioCancell announced success in attaining the goals of its Phase I/IIa clinical trial of BC-819 as a treatment for pancreatic cancer, which demonstrated an excellent safety profile and preliminary efficacy. [BioCancell Therapeutics, Inc. Press Release]
 
Neogenix Oncology Receives FDA Orphan Drug Status for Ensituximab (NPC-1C) for Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer
Neogenix Oncology, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation to the company’s product candidate ensituximab (monoclonal antibody NPC-1C) for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. [Business Wire]
 
Oramed Pharmaceuticals to Present Results of an Oral Insulin Administration Study at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society
Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc. announced that its work entitled “Extended exposure to an oral insulin formulation yields decreased insulin secretion in Type II diabetes subjects,” will be presented at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society. [Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc. Press Release]
 
Eli Lilly and Company to Open a Diabetes-Focused Research Center in China
Eli Lilly and Company announced plans to open a research center focused on diabetes in China, where the incidence of the disease has reached epidemic proportions. The center, to open in Shanghai in the second half of 2011, will focus on discovering new medicines to treat diabetes. [Eli Lilly and Company Press Release]
 
Phenomix, Former Highflying Diabetes Drugmaker, Shuts Down After Forest Labs Walks
San Diego-based Phenomix is history. The one-time highflying IPO candidate has shut down its operations, laid off essentially all of its 45 employees, and only has a skeleton crew left attempting to find someone to continue developing its lead drug candidate for diabetes. [Xconomy]

POLICY NEWS

NIH Introduces Images, a Database of Images in Biomedical Literature
More than 2.5 million images and figures from medical and life sciences journals are now available through Images, a new resource for finding images in biomedical literature. [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
NIH Recovery Act Grants to Foster Scientific Workforce Diversity
The National Institutes of Health has awarded six grants totaling approximately $12 million over three years through a new initiative aimed at fostering a diverse scientific workforce. [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Liraglutide for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, United Kingdom]
 
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting (FR Doc. 2010-27569) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings (FR Doc. 2010-27575) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings (FR Doc. 2010-27627) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings (FR Doc. 2010-27185) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings (FR Doc. 2010-27192) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting (FR Doc. 2010-27039) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting (FR Doc. 2010-27040) [National Institutes of Health, United States]

Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings (FR Doc. 2010-27049) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting (FR Doc. 2010-27325) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting (FR Doc. 2010-27626) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting (FR Doc. 2010-27410) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting (FR Doc. 2010-27187) [National Institutes of Health, United States]
 
Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in the Selection Process for Nonvoting Industry Representatives on Public Advisory Committees and Panels and Request for Nonvoting Industry Representatives on Public Advisory Committees and Panels [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] [Food and Drug Administration, United States]

EVENTS (Listed by Date)

2010 American Pancreatic Association (APA) Annual Meeting
November 3-6, 2010
Chicago, United States

Third Annual Research Experience of Stem Cells in European (RESCUE) Society Conference
November 8-9, 2010
Oxford, United Kingdom

NEW 10th Annual Meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society
November 11-13, 2010
Bethesda, United States

Select Biosciences 2nd International Forum on Stem Cells (2010 IFSC)
November 12-13, 2010
Tianjin, China

Australasian Pancreatic Club Annual Meeting
November 15-16, 2010
Melbourne, Australia

Pharmacology in Stem Cells Research and Regenerative Medicine
December 17, 2010
London, United Kingdom

Type 2 Diabetes, Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Dysfunction
January 12-17, 2011
Dillon, United States

Keystone Symposia: Obesity
January 12-17, 2011
Keystone, United States

2011 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium
January 20-22, 2011
San Francisco, United States

Epithelial Plasticity and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition
January 21-26, 2011
Vancouver, Canada

5th Annual Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine World Congress
January 24-25, 2011
San Diego, United States

Phacilitate 7th Annual Cell & Gene Therapy Forum 2011
January 24-26, 2011
Washington, DC, United States

Early Development for Innovative Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome Therapeutics Conference
January 26-27, 2011
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Joint Conference of the International Association of Pancreatology and the Indian Pancreas Club
February 10-13, 2011
Maradu, India

United Kingdom National Stem Cell Network 2011 Annual Scientific Conference
March 30-April 1, 2011
York, United Kingdom

American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 102nd Annual Meeting 2011
April 2-6, 2011
Orlando, United States

Visit our events page to stay up to date with the latest events in the cell, gene and immunotherapy community.

 

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