Volume 1.05 | May 25

Pancreatic Cell News 1.05, May 25, 2010.


Inhibiting the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase CDK5 Blocks Pancreatic Cancer Formation and Progression through the Suppression of Ras-Ral Signaling
CDK5 blockade resulted in the profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. [Cancer Res]



Research Points to Two Promising Proteins for Preventing Diabetes
In experiments using diabetes-prone mice, blocking the actions of the proteins significantly reduced the development of diabetes in the mice. [Press release from Indiana University School of Medicine discussing online prepublication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation]

New Associations Between Diabetes, Environmental Factors Found by Novel Analytic Technique
Scientists relied on an unconventional approach that treats environmental variables as “genes” to identify a previously known association between people with type 2 diabetes and polychlorinated biphenyls. [Press release from Stanford University School of Medicine discussing online prepublication in PLoS One]

Viral Infection Could Be Marker for Type 1 Diabetes
Researchers have discovered a link between infection with enteroviruses — which can cause viral meningitis — and diagnoses of type 1 diabetes in children. [Press release from HealthDay discussing research presented at the 110th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology]

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The Unique Hypusine Modification of eIF5A Promotes Islet Beta Cell Inflammation and Dysfunction in Mice
The observations identify the hypusine modification of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A as a potential therapeutic target for preserving islet function under inflammatory conditions. [J Clin Invest]

Targeting Cyclophilin D and the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Enhances Beta Cell Survival and Prevents Diabetes in Pdx1 Deficiency
Researchers show that lentiviral suppression of Pdx1 increases death of mouse insulinoma MIN6 beta cells associated with dissipation of the mitochondrial inner membrane electrochemical gradient. [Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A]

Deficiency in B7-H1 (PD-L1)/PD-1 Coinhibition Triggers Pancreatic Beta Cell-Destruction by Insulin-Specific, Murine CD8 T Cells
An imbalance between costimulator (B7.1) and coinhibitor (B7-H1) signals on pancreatic beta cells can trigger pancreatic beta cell-destruction by preproinsulin-specific CD8 T cells. [Diabetes]

Alpha(4)Beta(7) Integrin/MAdCAM-1 Adhesion Pathway Is Crucial for B Cell Migration into Pancreatic Lymph Nodes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice
These results indicate that the alpha(4)beta(7) integrin/mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) adhesion pathway plays a predominant role in migration of B cells into pancreatic lymph nodes in nonobese diabetic mice. [J Autoimmun]

Genistein Induces Pancreatic Beta Cell Proliferation through Activation of Multiple Signaling Pathways and Prevents Insulin-Deficient Diabetes in Mice
The results demonstrate that genistein may be a natural antidiabetic agent by directly modulating pancreatic beta cell function via activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent ERK1/2 signaling pathway. [Endocrinology]

Regulation of Islet Beta Cell Pyruvate Metabolism: Interactions of Prolactin, Glucose, and Dexamethasone
The findings suggest that prolactin (PRL) induction of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is mediated by increases in beta cell pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity; this is facilitated by suppression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). PRL counteracts the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on PDH and PDK expression, suggesting novel roles for the lactogens in the defense against diabetes. [Endocrinology]

An Environment-Wide Association Study (EWAS) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Despite difficulty in ascertaining causality, the potential for novel factors of large effect associated with type 2 diabetes justify the use of EWAS to create hypotheses regarding the broad contribution of the environment to disease. [PLoS One]


Notch1 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in a Model of K-ras-Induced Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
The loss of Notch1 resulted in increased tumor incidence and progression, implying that Notch1 can function as a tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. [Cancer Res]

Quantitative Proteomic Profiling Studies of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells
Researchers describe the profiling of the proteome of pancreatic cancer stem cells using a capillary scale shotgun technique by coupling offline capillary isoelectric focusing with nano reversed phase liquid chromatography followed by spectral counting peptide quantification. [J Proteome Res]

Benzyl Isothiocyanate-Mediated Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Leads to NF-KappaB Turnoff in Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells
The results suggest inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1/HDAC3 by benzyl isothiocyanate as a plausible mechanism of NF-kappaB inactivation, resulting in the in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of pancreatic cancer cells. [Mol Cancer Ther]

Identification of Novel Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell-Surface Targets by Gene Expression Profiling and Tissue Microarray
Using complementary assays of mRNA expression profiling to determine elevated expression in pancreatic cancer tissues relative to normal pancreas tissues, and validation of protein expression by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray, researchers have identified cell-surface targets with potential for imaging and therapeutic agent development. [Biochem Pharmacol]


Second Trial with ABRAXANE to Demonstrate Increased Survival in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
Abraxis BioScience, Inc. announced it will be presenting more than 30 studies, including new clinical data evaluating the use of nanoparticle albumin bound (nab®) driven chemotherapy, nab-paclitaxel (ABRAXANE® for Injectable suspension; paclitaxel protein albumin-bound particles for injectable suspension) for the treatment of pancreatic cancer at the 46th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. [Abraxis BioScience, Inc. Press Release]

Amgen Highlights Key Clinical Data to Be Presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting
Amgen announced that results from studies involving nine molecules in the Company’s oncology portfolio will be presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting. [Amgen, Inc. Press Release]

NewLink Genetics to Present Phase II Data on HyperAcute®-Pancreas Immunotherapy at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting
NewLink Genetics Corporation announced that preliminary data from its Phase II clinical trial evaluating the effect of HyperAcute®-Pancreas immunotherapy in patients with resected pancreatic cancer will be presented during a poster session at the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2010 Annual Meeting. [PR Newswire]

Tumor-Targeted Rexin-G Prolongs Survival in Gemcitabine-Resistant Metastatic Pancreas Cancer in Advanced Phase I and II Studies
Epeius Biotechnologies Corporation announces the results of the clinical study entitled “Phase I and II Studies of Intravenous Rexin-G as Monotherapy for Gemcitabine-resistant Metastatic Pancreas Cancer” at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting. [Medical News Today]

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Wins $2.45 Million Grant to Support Stem Cell Research
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and principal investigator Glenn Monastersky have been awarded a four-year $2.45 million grant from the New York Stem Cell Science Program of the Empire State Stem Cell Board. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Press Release]

HHMI Awards $79 Million for Science Education to Research Universities, Top Scientists
Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) announced new grants totaling $79 million that will help universities strengthen undergraduate and precollege science education nationwide. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute Press Release]

Pfizer to Cut 6,000 Jobs, Close Eight Plants
Pfizer Inc. plans to eliminate 6,000 manufacturing jobs over the next 18 months to five years as it closes eight plants and reduces operations at six others. [St. Louis Business Journal]

Novo Sues Lupin to Block Generic in US
Novo Nordisk has sued Mumbai-based drugmaker Lupin to prevent it from launching the low priced version of its patented diabetes medicine sold under the brand Prandimet in the U.S. [The Economic Times]


Government Unveils $1 Billion Biomedical Tax Credit
The Obama administration is offering $1 billion in seed money to small research firms in the hunt for promising medical breakthroughs. [Obama Administration, United States]

Obama Orders Review of Synthetic Biology
President Obama has asked his bioethics commission to study the implications of research describing the creation of a synthetic genome. [Obama Administration, United States]

NIH Wants More (Not Total) Disclosure of Financial Conflicts
The federal government proposed an overhaul of regulations covering financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research. The rules would expand the amount of information that researchers must report to their institutions, make some of it public, and require that more details than in the past be submitted privately to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). [National Institutes of Health, United States]

Small Business Innovation Research to Develop New Therapeutics and Monitoring Technologies for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Towards an Artificial Pancreas [(SBIR) (R43/R44)] (RFA-DK-10-008)[National Institutes of Health, United States]

Notice of Intent to Publish a New Funding Opportunity that will Reconfigure and Consolidate The Millennium Promise Awards: Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Research Training Program (NCoD) (NOT-TW-10-457) [National Institutes of Health, United States]


International Scientific Symposium: Stem Cells in Biology and Disease
May 26-28, 2010
Lisbon, Portugal

American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO) 56th Annual Conference
May 27-29, 2010
Baltimore, United States

46th American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting
June 4-8, 2010
Chicago, United States

The First Cedars-Sinai Regenerative Medicine Scientific Symposium
June 14, 2010
Los Angeles, United States

42nd Meeting of the European Pancreatic Club (EPC)
June 16-19, 2010
Stockholm, Sweden

International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) 8th Annual Meeting
June 16-19, 2010
San Francisco, United States

70th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association
June 25-29, 2010
Orlando, United States

21st Meeting of the European Association for Cancer Research (EACR) 
June 26-29, 2010
Oslo, Norway

United Kingdom National Stem Cell Network (UKNSCN) Third Annual Scientific Conference
July 12-14, 2010
Nottingham, United Kingdom

2010 World Cancer Congress
August 18-21, 2010
Shenzhen, China

The European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) Meeting – Advancing the Life Sciences
September 4-7, 2010
Barcelona, Spain

The Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (AUGIS) 2010 Scientific Meeting 
September 9-10, 2010
Oxford, United Kingdom

Stem Cells USA & Regenerative Medicine Congress 2010
September 13-15, 2010
Philadelphia, United States 

Annual Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) World Congress
September 19-23, 2010
Sydney, Australia

35th European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress
October 8-12, 2010
Milan, Italy

Fraunhofer Life Science Symposium 2010
October 29-30, 2010
Leipzig, Germany

2010 American Pancreatic Association (APA) Annual Meeting
November 3-6, 2010
Chicago, United States

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